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Hosea 11:1-3 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Reversal of the Exodus: Return to Egypt and Exile in Assyria

11 “When Israel was a young man, I loved him like a son,[a]
and I summoned my son[b] out of Egypt.
But the more I summoned[c] them,
the farther they departed from me.[d]
They sacrificed to the Baal idols
and burned incense to images.
Yet it was I who led[e] Ephraim;
I took them by the arm,
but they did not acknowledge
that I had healed them.[f]


  1. Hosea 11:1 tn The words “like a son” are not in the Hebrew text but are necessary to clarify what sort of love is intended (cf. also NLT).
  2. Hosea 11:1 tc The MT reads בְנִי (veni, “my son”); however, the LXX reflects בָנָיו (vanayv, “his sons”). The MT should be retained as original here because of internal evidence; it is much more appropriate to the context.
  3. Hosea 11:2 tc The MT reads קָרְאוּ (qareʾu, “they called”; Qal perfect third person common plural from קָרַא, qaraʾ, “to call”); cf. KJV and NASB. However, the LXX and Syriac reflect כְּקָרְאִי (keqareʾi, “as I called”; preposition כְּ [kaf] + Qal infinitive construct from קָרַא + first person common singular suffix). The presence of the resumptive adverb כֵּן (ken, “even so”) in the following clause supports the alternate textual tradition reflected in the LXX and Syriac (cf. NAB, NIV, NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT).
  4. Hosea 11:2 tc The MT reads מִפְּנֵיהֶם (mippenehem, “from them”; preposition + masculine plural noun + third person masculine plural suffix); so KJV, ASV, and NASB. However, the LXX and Syriac reflect an alternate Hebrew textual tradition of מִפָּנַי הֵם (mippanay hem, “they [went away] from me”; preposition + masculine plural noun + first person common singular suffix, followed by third person masculine plural independent personal pronoun); cf. NAB, NIV, and NRSV. The textual variant was caused simply by faulty word division.
  5. Hosea 11:3 tn Or “taught Ephraim to walk” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). The verb תִרְגַּלְתִּי (tirgalti, “I taught [him] to walk, I led [him]”; Tiphil perfect first person common singular from רָגַל, ragal, “to walk”) is an unusual verb stem: the Tiphil (properly Taphel) is attested three times in Biblical Hebrew (Hos 11:3; Jer 12:5; 22:15) and once in Biblical Aramaic (Ezra 4:7; see GKC 153 §55.h).
  6. Hosea 11:3 tn Or “that it was I who had healed them” (NIV and NLT are similar).
New English Translation (NET)

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