Bible Book List

Hosea 1-4 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 1

[a]The word of the Lord that came to Hosea son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam, son of Joash, king of Israel.[b]

I. The Prophet’s Marriage and Its Symbolism

Marriage of Hosea and Gomer. When the Lord began to speak with Hosea, the Lord said to Hosea: Go, get for yourself a woman of prostitution[c] and children of prostitution, for the land prostitutes itself, turning away from the Lord.

So he went and took Gomer, daughter of Diblaim; and she conceived and bore him a son. Then the Lord said to him: Give him the name “Jezreel,”[d] for in a little while I will punish the house of Jehu for the bloodshed at Jezreel and bring to an end the kingdom of the house of Israel; on that day I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.

She conceived again and bore a daughter. The Lord said to him: Give her the name “Not-Pitied,”[e] for I will no longer feel pity for the house of Israel: rather, I will utterly abhor them. [f]Yet for the house of Judah I will feel pity; I will save them by the Lord, their God; but I will not save them by bow or sword, by warfare, by horses or horsemen.

After she weaned Not-Pitied, she conceived and bore a son. Then the Lord said: Give him the name “Not-My-People,”[g] for you are not my people, and I am not “I am” for you.

Chapter 2

[h]The number of the Israelites
    will be like the sand of the sea,
    which can be neither measured nor counted.
Instead of being told,
    “You are Not-My-People,”
They will be called,
    “Children of the living God.”
Then the people of Judah and of Israel
    will gather together;
They will appoint for themselves one head
    and rise up from the land;
    great indeed shall be the day of Jezreel!
Say to your brothers, “My People,”
    and to your sisters, “Pitied.”

The Lord and Israel His Spouse[i]

Accuse your mother, accuse!
    for she is not my wife,
    and I am not her husband.[j]
Let her remove her prostitution from her face.
    her adultery from between her breasts,

Or I will strip her naked,[k]
    leaving her as on the day of her birth;
I will make her like the wilderness,
    make her like an arid land,
    and let her die of thirst.
I will have no pity on her children,
    for they are children of prostitution.
Yes, their mother has prostituted herself;
    she who conceived them has acted shamefully.
For she said, “I will go after my lovers,[l]
    who give me my bread and my water,
    my wool and my flax, my oil and my drink.”
[m]Therefore, I will hedge in her way with thorns
    and erect a wall against her,
    so that she cannot find her paths.
If she runs after her lovers, she will not overtake them;
    if she seeks them she will not find them.
Then she will say,
    “I will go back to my first husband,
    for I was better off then than now.”

10 She did not know
    that it was I who gave her
    the grain, the wine, and the oil,
I who lavished upon her silver,
    and gold, which they used for Baal,[n]
11 Therefore I will take back my grain in its time,
    and my wine in its season;
I will snatch away my wool and my flax,
    which were to cover her nakedness.
12 Now I will lay bare her shame
    in full view of her lovers,
    and no one can deliver her out of my hand.
13 I will put an end to all her joy,
    her festivals, her new moons, her sabbaths—
    all her seasonal feasts.
14 I will lay waste her vines and fig trees,
    of which she said, “These are the fees
    my lovers have given me”;
I will turn them into rank growth
    and wild animals shall devour them.
15 I will punish her for the days of the Baals,[o]
    for whom she burnt incense,
When she decked herself out with her rings and her jewelry,
    and went after her lovers—
    but me she forgot—oracle of the Lord.
16 Therefore,[p] I will allure her now;
    I will lead her into the wilderness
    and speak persuasively to her.
17 Then I will give her the vineyards she had,
    and the valley of Achor[q] as a door of hope.
There she will respond as in the days of her youth,
    as on the day when she came up from the land of Egypt.

18 On that day—oracle of the Lord
You shall call me “My husband,”
    and you shall never again call me “My baal.”[r]
19 I will remove from her mouth the names of the Baals;
    they shall no longer be mentioned by their name.

20 I will make a covenant for them on that day,
    with the wild animals,
With the birds of the air,
    and with the things that crawl on the ground.
Bow and sword and warfare
    I will destroy from the land,
    and I will give them rest in safety.

21 I will betroth you to me forever:
    I will betroth you to me with[s] justice and with judgment,
    with loyalty and with compassion;
22 I will betroth you to me with fidelity,
    and you shall know the Lord.
23 On that day I will respond—oracle of the Lord
    I will respond to the heavens,
    and they will respond to the earth;
24 The earth will respond to the grain, and wine, and oil,
    and these will respond to Jezreel.
25 I will sow her for myself in the land,
    and I will have pity on Not-Pitied.
I will say to Not-My-People, “You are my people,”
    and he will say, “My God!”

Chapter 3

Hosea and His Wife Reunited[t] Again the Lord said to me:

Go, love a woman
    who is loved by her spouse but commits adultery;
Just as the Lord loves the Israelites,
    though they turn to other gods
    and love raisin cakes.[u]

[v]So I acquired her for myself for fifteen pieces of silver and a homer and a lethech of barley. Then I said to her:

“You will wait for me for many days;
    you will not prostitute yourself
Or belong to any man;
    I in turn will wait for you.”
[w]For the Israelites will remain many days
    without king or prince,
Without sacrifice or sacred pillar,
    without ephod or household gods.
Afterward the Israelites will turn back
    and seek the Lord, their God,
    and David, their king;[x]
They will come trembling to the Lord
    and to his bounty, in the last days.

II. Israel’s Guilt, Punishment, and Restoration

Chapter 4

Indictment of Israel[y]

Hear the word of the Lord, Israelites,
    for the Lord has a dispute
    with the inhabitants of the land:
There is no fidelity, no loyalty,
    no knowledge of God in the land.
Swearing, lying, murder,
    stealing and adultery break out;[z]
    bloodshed follows bloodshed.
Therefore the land dries up,
    and everything that dwells in it languishes:
The beasts of the field,
    the birds of the air,
    and even the fish of the sea perish.

Guilt of Priest and of People

But let no one accuse, let no one rebuke;
    with you is my dispute, priest![aa]
You will stumble in the day,
    and the prophet will stumble with you at night;
    I will make an end of your mother.[ab]
My people are ruined for lack of knowledge!
    Since you have rejected knowledge,
    I will reject you from serving as my priest;
Since you have forgotten the law of your God,
    I will also forget your children.

The more they multiplied, the more they sinned against me,
    I will change their glory[ac] into shame.
They feed on the sin of my people,
    and are greedy for their iniquity.[ad]
Like people, like priest:
    I will punish them for their ways,
    and repay them for their deeds.
10 They will eat but not be satisfied,
    they will promote prostitution[ae] but not increase,
Because they have abandoned the Lord,
    devoting themselves
11     to prostitution.
Aged wine and new wine
    take away understanding.
12 My people consult their piece of wood,[af]
    and their wand makes pronouncements for them,
For the spirit of prostitution has led them astray;
    they prostitute themselves, forsaking their God.
13 On the mountaintops they offer sacrifice
    and on the hills they burn incense,
Beneath oak and poplar and terebinth,
    because of their pleasant shade.[ag]
Therefore your daughters prostitute themselves,
    and your daughters-in-law commit adultery.
14 I will not punish your daughters for their prostitution,
    nor your daughters-in-law for their adultery,
Because the men themselves consort with prostitutes,
    and with temple women[ah] they offer sacrifice!
Thus a people without understanding comes to ruin.

15 Though you prostitute yourself, Israel,
    do not let Judah become guilty!
Do not come to Gilgal,[ai]
    do not go up to Beth-aven,
    do not swear, “As the Lord lives!”
16 For like a stubborn cow,
    Israel is stubborn;
Will the Lord now pasture them,
    like lambs in a broad meadow?
17 Ephraim[aj] is bound to idols,
    let him alone!
18 [ak]When their drinking is over,
    they give themselves to prostitution;
    they love shame more than their honor.
19 A wind[al] has bound them up in its wings;
    they shall be ashamed because of their altars.


  1. 1:1–3 This section begins with Hosea’s marriage to Gomer, which symbolizes Israel’s relationship to God. Hence the symbolic names of Hosea’s children and their later renaming (1:2–9; 2:1–3). The prophet foresees God’s punishment for the unfaithful covenant partner, but knows that God’s last word is always hope (2:4–25).
  2. 1:1 This superscription is from a Judean editor, who lists the kings of Judah in the south first, even though Hosea preached in the Northern Kingdom of Israel.
  3. 1:2 A woman of prostitution: this does not necessarily mean that Gomer was a prostitute when Hosea married her; the verse describes the event in its final consequences. Prostitution here may refer to Gomer’s participation in the worship of other gods.
  4. 1:4 Give him the name “Jezreel”: the names of the three children are symbolic, and predict God’s punishment in a crescendo. These names are frequently repeated in chaps. 1–2. Jezreel: (lit., “God will sow”) the strategic valley in northern Israel where Jehu brought the dynasty of Omri to an end through bloodshed (2 Kgs 9–10). Jeroboam II was the next to the last king of the house of Jehu. The prophecy in this verse of the end of the house of Jehu was fulfilled by the murder of Zechariah, son of Jeroboam II (2 Kgs 15:8–10).
  5. 1:6 “Not-Pitied”: in Hebrew lo-ruhama.
  6. 1:7 Probably written by a later editor when the prophecies of Hosea circulated in the south, after the dissolution of the Northern Kingdom had occurred. The second part of the verse emphasizes the power of the Lord, who needs no human agents to fulfill the divine will. It may refer to the deliverance of Jerusalem from the siege of Sennacherib in 701 (2 Kgs 19:35–37).
  7. 1:9 “Not-My-People”: in Hebrew lo-ammi. I am not “I am” for you: a reference to the divine name revealed to Moses, “I am” (Ex 3:14). This reversal of the relationship marks the end of the covenant (Ex 6:7).
  8. 2:1–3 These verses abruptly reverse the tone of the judgments of 1:2–9 with words of hope for the covenant people: the name Jezreel is given a positive interpretation in contrast to its negative meaning in 1:4; the child named “Not-Pitied” in 1:6 is renamed “Pitied” in 2:3; the child named “Not-My-People” is renamed “My People.” The reversal of these names occurs again in 2:25.
  9. 2:4–25 The section contains three oracles of doom (vv. 4–6, 7–9, 10–15), a transition (vv. 16–17), and three oracles of salvation (vv. 18–19, 20–22, 23–25).
  10. 2:4 The Lord speaks of Israel, still using the example of Hosea’s wife.
  11. 2:5 I will strip her naked: it was the husband’s responsibility to provide food and clothing for his wife (Ex 21:10) and now, because of her adultery, he takes back his support.
  12. 2:7 My lovers: even though Israel had experienced the Lord as the God of the desert, covenant and conquest, the people were inclined to turn to the local fertility deities, the Baals, who were believed to be responsible for agricultural success. They easily forgot that the Lord provides them with everything (v. 10; cf. Dt 7:13), and thus prostituted themselves by worshiping other gods.
  13. 2:8 The crop failures sent by the Lord are meant to make Israel see the folly of its ways.
  14. 2:10 For Baal: as an offering to Baal or to make statues of Baal.
  15. 2:15 The days of the Baals: feast days of the Baal cult (v. 13), or the whole period of Israel’s apostasy.
  16. 2:16 Therefore: this word in Hebrew normally introduces an oracle of doom; here, surprisingly, it leads to hope. Allure: as though seducing a virgin (Ex 22:15–16). Ordinarily this word connotes deception (Jgs 14:15; 16:5; 1 Kgs 22:20–22).
  17. 2:17 Valley of Achor: lit., valley of trouble (Jos 7:26). Here this valley becomes a valley of hope, a new entry into the promised land.
  18. 2:18–19 Baal: the word means “lord, master.” It was commonly used by women of their husbands, but it is to be shunned as a title for the Lord because of its association with the fertility gods, the Baals. Many Israelites saw little if any difference between the worship of the Lord and the worship of the Baals, thereby dishonoring the true source of the land’s fertility.
  19. 2:21–22 Betroth…with: the betrothal was the legal moment before cohabitation when the dowry was paid to the father of the bride. In this remarriage the Lord gives the bride price to Israel herself “forever.” Justice…judgment: refer to equity and fairness of conduct. The next two terms, “loyalty” (hesed), the steadfast love between the covenant partners, and “compassion,” maternal love (cf. 1:6; 2:3, 25) are characteristic of Hosea. You shall know: not an abstract but a practical knowledge which means acknowledgment of God’s will and obedience to his law (4:1; 5:4; 6:3, 6).
  20. 3:1–5 Just as the Lord is ready to take Israel back, Hosea takes his wife back. She must undergo a period of purification, just as Israel must experience purification before the restoration of the covenant relationship.
  21. 3:1 Raisin cakes: offerings to the fertility goddess Asherah, the female counterpart of Baal, cf. Jer 7:18; 44:19; Dn 14:5–8.
  22. 3:2 Just as the Lord offered a new bride price to Israel (2:21–22), so Hosea offers a new bride price to his wife. He returns to her what he has taken away from her (2:5): “fifteen (shekels) of silver”; “a homer of barley,” a unit of dry measurement, which according to the etymology means “a mule load”; and “a lethech of barley,” which is a half-homer.
  23. 3:4 Israel will lose its political and cultic institutions. Sacred pillar: originally perhaps a phallic symbol, representing Baal. These were also used in Israelite worship (cf. notes on Gn 28:18; Ex 34:13). Ephod: an instrument used in consulting the deity (1 Sm 23:6–12; 30:7; cf. notes on Ex 28:6, 15–30). Household gods: in Hebrew, teraphim; images regarded as the tutelary deities of the household (Gn 31:19; Jgs 17:5; 18:14, 17–18).
  24. 3:5 David, their king: the king belonging to the line of David who will restore the Israelite nation (Jer 23:5; Ez 34:23, 24). The last days: a future time of transformation.
  25. 4:1–3 The introduction to the oracles (chaps. 4–11) which begin with “Hear the word of the Lord” (4:1) and end with “oracle of the Lord” (11:11).
  26. 4:2 Similar to the decalogue (Ex 20:1–17; cf. Jer 7:9).
  27. 4:4–6 Hosea is particularly severe with the priests in the Northern Kingdom who had led the way in the general apostasy from God’s law. The prophets here associated with the priests (v. 5) were doubtless cult prophets; cf. Jer 2:8; 4:9–10; 6:13–14; 23:9–40.
  28. 4:5 Your mother: the one who gave life to the priest, understood here as an extension of the punishment to his whole family (Am 7:17), or “mother” taken as a metaphor for the community of Israel, of which the priest is a member (Hos 2:4).
  29. 4:7 Their glory: possibly connoting “their children.” See 9:11: Is 22:24. Or “Glory” may refer to the Lord in contrast to Ba’al. The Hebrew word for shame, bosheth, is often substituted for Ba’al in biblical names. See Ishbaal (Heb. Ishbosheth, 2 Sm 2:8, 10, 12, 15) and Meribaal (Heb. Mephibosheth, 2 Sm 9:6, 10–13).
  30. 4:8 The priest receives part of the sacrifice (Lv 6:19; 7:7).
  31. 4:10–11 Prostitution: often a synonym for idolatry. The covenant bond was symbolized as the relationship between husband and wife (see chaps. 1–2). Thus, abandoning the Lord for a foreign god was called prostitution or adultery.
  32. 4:12 Piece of wood: a derogatory term for an idol. Wand: a sacred wooden object, perhaps some kind of staff, used for divination.
  33. 4:13 The shrines on the “high places” typically had an altar, a grove of trees, and a stone pillar representing a god (Dt 12:2; Jer 2:20).
  34. 4:14 Temple women: plural of Heb. qedesha; the exact import of the term is disputed. See notes on Gn 38:21 and Dt 23:18–19.
  35. 4:15 Gilgal: close to Jericho (Jos 4:19–20; 5:2–9). Beth-aven: (lit., “house of iniquity”) Hosea’s derogatory term for the sanctuary of Bethel (lit., “house of God”), the major shrine of the Northern Kingdom (10:5, 8; cf. Am 5:5). As the Lord lives: a legitimate oath formula (1 Sm 26:10, 16), but unacceptable here because Israel is guilty of religious syncretism and the idolatrous worship of other gods.
  36. 4:17 Ephraim: the name of one of the sons of Joseph, son of Jacob (Gn 41:52), also used to designate one of the tribes living in the heartland of the Northern Kingdom. Hosea often uses the name Ephraim to refer to the whole Northern Kingdom of Israel. During the latter part of his ministry, after the Assyrians occupied Galilee, Ephraim was all that remained of Israel.
  37. 4:18 Cf. v. 11.
  38. 4:19 A wind: (Heb. ruah), a metaphor for Israel’s addiction to the Baal cult, which is nothing but wind, a “spirit (ruah) of prostitution” (v. 12).
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Ben Sira 42:1-14 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 42

Of repeating what you hear,
    of betraying any secret.
Be ashamed of the right things,
    and you will find favor in the sight of all.

But of these things do not be ashamed,
    lest you sin to save face:
Of the Law of the Most High and his precepts,
    or of justice that acquits the ungodly;
Of sharing the expenses of a business or a journey,
    of dividing an inheritance or property;
Of accuracy of scales and balances,
    of tested measures and weights;
Of acquiring much or little,
    of bargaining in dealing with a merchant;
Of constant training of children,
    of beating the sides of a wicked servant;
Of a seal to keep a foolish wife at home,
    of a key where there are many hands;
Of numbering every deposit,
    of recording all that is taken in and given out;
Of chastisement for the silly and the foolish,
    for the aged and infirm answering for wanton conduct.
Thus you will be truly refined
    and recognized by all as discreet.

A Father’s Care for His Daughter[a]

A daughter is a treasure that keeps her father wakeful,
    and worry over her drives away sleep:
Lest in her youth she remain unmarried,
    or when she is married, lest she be childless;
10 While unmarried, lest she be defiled,
    or in her husband’s house, lest she prove unfaithful;
Lest she become pregnant in her father’s house,
    or be sterile in that of her husband.
11 My son, keep a close watch on your daughter,
    lest she make you a laughingstock for your enemies,
A byword in the city and the assembly of the people,
    an object of derision in public gatherings.
See that there is no lattice in her room,
    or spot that overlooks the approaches to the house.
12 Do not let her reveal her beauty to any male,
    or spend her time with married women;
13 For just as moths come from garments,
    so a woman’s wickedness comes from a woman.
14 Better a man’s harshness than a woman’s indulgence,
    a frightened daughter than any disgrace.


  1. 42:9–14 Ben Sira considers a daughter to be a source of anxiety to her father, lest she fail to marry, or be defiled, or lest, marrying, she be childless, prove unfaithful, or find herself sterile (vv. 9–10). He is advised to keep a close watch on her and on her companions, lest he suffer on her account among the people (vv. 11–12). The exhortations, which take into account only a father’s concern, are quite unflattering to young women. The concluding statements (vv. 13–14) show the limitations of Ben Sira’s perspective in the male-oriented society of his day.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Revelation 16 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 16

The Seven Bowls.[a] I heard a loud voice speaking from the temple to the seven angels, “Go and pour out the seven bowls of God’s fury upon the earth.”

The first angel went and poured out his bowl on the earth. Festering and ugly sores broke out on those who had the mark of the beast or worshiped its image.[b]

[c]The second angel poured out his bowl on the sea. The sea turned to blood like that from a corpse; every creature living in the sea died.

The third angel poured out his bowl on the rivers and springs of water. These also turned to blood. Then I heard the angel in charge of the waters say:

“You are just, O Holy One,
    who are and who were,
    in passing this sentence.
For they have shed the blood of the holy ones and the prophets,
    and you [have] given them blood to drink;
    it is what they deserve.”

Then I heard the altar cry out,

“Yes, Lord God almighty,
    your judgments are true and just.”

The fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun. It was given the power to burn people with fire. People were burned by the scorching heat and blasphemed the name of God who had power over these plagues, but they did not repent or give him glory.

10 The fifth angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast.[d] Its kingdom was plunged into darkness, and people bit their tongues in pain 11 and blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and sores. But they did not repent of their works.

12 The sixth angel emptied his bowl on the great river Euphrates. Its water was dried up to prepare the way for the kings of the East.[e] 13 I saw three unclean spirits like frogs[f] come from the mouth of the dragon, from the mouth of the beast, and from the mouth of the false prophet. 14 These were demonic spirits who performed signs. They went out to the kings of the whole world to assemble them for the battle on the great day of God the almighty. 15 (“Behold, I am coming like a thief.”[g] Blessed is the one who watches and keeps his clothes ready, so that he may not go naked and people see him exposed.) 16 They then assembled the kings in the place that is named Armageddon[h] in Hebrew.

17 The seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air. A loud voice came out of the temple from the throne, saying, “It is done.” 18 Then there were lightning flashes, rumblings, and peals of thunder, and a great earthquake. It was such a violent earthquake that there has never been one like it since the human race began on earth. 19 The great city[i] was split into three parts, and the gentile cities fell. But God remembered great Babylon, giving it the cup filled with the wine of his fury and wrath. 20 [j]Every island fled, and mountains disappeared. 21 Large hailstones like huge weights came down from the sky on people, and they blasphemed God for the plague of hail because this plague was so severe.


  1. 16:1–21 These seven bowls, like the seven seals (Rev 6:1–17; 8:1) and the seven trumpets (Rev 8:2–9:21; 11:15–19), bring on a succession of disasters modeled in part on the plagues of Egypt (Ex 7–12). See note on Rev 6:12–14.
  2. 16:2 Like the sixth Egyptian plague (Ex 9:8–11).
  3. 16:3–4 Like the first Egyptian plague (Ex 7:20–21). The same woe followed the blowing of the second trumpet (Rev 8:8–9).
  4. 16:10 The throne of the beast: symbol of the forces of evil. Darkness: like the ninth Egyptian plague (Ex 10:21–23); cf. Rev 9:2.
  5. 16:12 The kings of the East: Parthians; see notes on Rev 6:2 and Rev 17:12–13. East: literally, “rising of the sun,” as in Rev 7:2.
  6. 16:13 Frogs: possibly an allusion to the second Egyptian plague (Ex 7:26–8:11). The false prophet: identified with the two-horned second beast (Rev 13:11–18 and the note there).
  7. 16:15 Like a thief: as in Rev 3:3 (cf. Mt 24:42–44; 1 Thes 5:2). Blessed: see note on Rev 1:3.
  8. 16:16 Armageddon: in Hebrew, this means “Mountain of Megiddo.” Since Megiddo was the scene of many decisive battles in antiquity (Jgs 5:19–20; 2 Kgs 9:27; 2 Chr 35:20–24), the town became the symbol of the final disastrous rout of the forces of evil.
  9. 16:19 The great city: Rome and the empire.
  10. 16:20–21 See note on Rev 6:12–14. Hailstones: as in the seventh Egyptian plague (Ex 9:23–24); cf. Rev 8:7. Like huge weights: literally, “weighing a talent,” about one hundred pounds.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.


1 of 1

You'll get this book and many others when you join Bible Gateway Plus. Learn more

Viewing of
Cross references