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Greek Esther 1-10 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)

Note: The deuterocanonical portions of the Book of Esther are several additional passages found in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Book of Esther, a translation that differs also in other respects from the Hebrew text (the latter is translated in the NRSV Old Testament). The disordered chapter numbers come from the displacement of the additions to the end of the canonical Book of Esther by Jerome in his Latin translation and from the subsequent division of the Bible into chapters by Stephen Langton, who numbered the additions consecutively as though they formed a direct continuation of the Hebrew text. So that the additions may be read in their proper context, the whole of the Greek version is here translated, though certain familiar names are given according to their Hebrew rather than their Greek form; for example, Mordecai and Vashti instead of Mardocheus and Astin. The order followed is that of the Greek text, but the chapter and verse numbers conform to those of the King James, or Authorized Version. The additions, conveniently indicated by the letters A-F, are located as follows: A, before 1.1; B, after 3.13; C and D, after 4.17; E, after 8.12; F, after 10.3.


Addition A

Mordecai’s Dream

11 [a] In the second year of the reign of Artaxerxes the Great, on the first day of Nisan, Mordecai son of Jair son of Shimei[b] son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, had a dream. He was a Jew living in the city of Susa, a great man, serving in the court of the king. He was one of the captives whom King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had brought from Jerusalem with King Jeconiah of Judea. And this was his dream: Noises[c] and confusion, thunders and earthquake, tumult on the earth! Then two great dragons came forward, both ready to fight, and they roared terribly. At their roaring every nation prepared for war, to fight against the righteous nation. It was a day of darkness and gloom, of tribulation and distress, affliction and great tumult on the earth! And the whole righteous nation was troubled; they feared the evils that threatened them,[d] and were ready to perish. 10 Then they cried out to God; and at their outcry, as though from a tiny spring, there came a great river, with abundant water; 11 light came, and the sun rose, and the lowly were exalted and devoured those held in honor.

12 Mordecai saw in this dream what God had determined to do, and after he awoke he had it on his mind, seeking all day to understand it in every detail.

A Plot against the King

12 Now Mordecai took his rest in the courtyard with Gabatha and Tharra, the two eunuchs of the king who kept watch in the courtyard. He overheard their conversation and inquired into their purposes, and learned that they were preparing to lay hands on King Artaxerxes; and he informed the king concerning them. Then the king examined the two eunuchs, and after they had confessed it, they were led away to execution. The king made a permanent record of these things, and Mordecai wrote an account of them. And the king ordered Mordecai to serve in the court, and rewarded him for these things. But Haman son of Hammedatha, a Bougean, who was in great honor with the king, determined to injure Mordecai and his people because of the two eunuchs of the king.

End of Addition A


Arataxerxes’ Banquet

It was after this that the following things happened in the days of Artaxerxes, the same Artaxerxes who ruled over one hundred twenty-seven provinces from India to Ethiopia.[e] In those days, when King Artaxerxes was enthroned in the city of Susa, in the third year of his reign, he gave a banquet for his Friends and other persons of various nations, the Persians and Median nobles, and the governors of the provinces. After this, when he had displayed to them the riches of his kingdom and the splendor of his bountiful celebration during the course of one hundred eighty days, at the end of the festivity[f] the king gave a drinking party for the people of various nations who lived in the city. This was held for six days in the courtyard of the royal palace, which was adorned with curtains of fine linen and cotton, held by cords of purple linen attached to gold and silver blocks on pillars of marble and other stones. Gold and silver couches were placed on a mosaic floor of emerald, mother-of-pearl, and marble. There were coverings of gauze, embroidered in various colors, with roses arranged around them. The cups were of gold and silver, and a miniature cup was displayed, made of ruby, worth thirty thousand talents. There was abundant sweet wine, such as the king himself drank. The drinking was not according to a fixed rule; but the king wished to have it so, and he commanded his stewards to comply with his pleasure and with that of the guests.

Meanwhile, Queen Vashti[g] gave a drinking party for the women in the palace where King Artaxerxes was.

Dismissal of Queen Vashti

10 On the seventh day, when the king was in good humor, he told Haman, Bazan, Tharra, Boraze, Zatholtha, Abataza, and Tharaba, the seven eunuchs who served King Artaxerxes, 11 to escort the queen to him in order to proclaim her as queen and to place the diadem on her head, and to have her display her beauty to all the governors and the people of various nations, for she was indeed a beautiful woman. 12 But Queen Vashti[h] refused to obey him and would not come with the eunuchs. This offended the king and he became furious. 13 He said to his Friends, “This is how Vashti[i] has answered me.[j] Give therefore your ruling and judgment on this matter.” 14 Arkesaeus, Sarsathaeus, and Malesear, then the governors of the Persians and Medes who were closest to the king—Arkesaeus, Sarsathaeus, and Malesear, who sat beside him in the chief seats—came to him 15 and told him what must be done to Queen Vashti[k] for not obeying the order that the king had sent her by the eunuchs. 16 Then Muchaeus said to the king and the governors, “Queen Vashti[l] has insulted not only the king but also all the king’s governors and officials” 17 (for he had reported to them what the queen had said and how she had defied the king). “And just as she defied King Artaxerxes, 18 so now the other ladies who are wives of the Persian and Median governors, on hearing what she has said to the king, will likewise dare to insult their husbands. 19 If therefore it pleases the king, let him issue a royal decree, inscribed in accordance with the laws of the Medes and Persians so that it may not be altered, that the queen may no longer come into his presence; but let the king give her royal rank to a woman better than she. 20 Let whatever law the king enacts be proclaimed in his kingdom, and thus all women will give honor to their husbands, rich and poor alike.” 21 This speech pleased the king and the governors, and the king did as Muchaeus had recommended. 22 The king sent the decree into all his kingdom, to every province in its own language, so that in every house respect would be shown to every husband.

Esther Becomes Queen

After these things, the king’s anger abated, and he no longer was concerned about Vashti[m] or remembered what he had said and how he had condemned her. Then the king’s servants said, “Let beautiful and virtuous girls be sought out for the king. The king shall appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, and they shall select beautiful young virgins to be brought to the harem in Susa, the capital. Let them be entrusted to the king’s eunuch who is in charge of the women, and let ointments and whatever else they need be given them. And the woman who pleases the king shall be queen instead of Vashti.”[n] This pleased the king, and he did so.

Now there was a Jew in Susa the capital whose name was Mordecai son of Jair son of Shimei[o] son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin; he had been taken captive from Jerusalem among those whom King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had captured. And he had a foster child, the daughter of his father’s brother, Aminadab, and her name was Esther. When her parents died, he brought her up to womanhood as his own. The girl was beautiful in appearance. So, when the decree of the king was proclaimed, and many girls were gathered in Susa the capital in custody of Gai, Esther also was brought to Gai, who had custody of the women. The girl pleased him and won his favor, and he quickly provided her with ointments and her portion of food,[p] as well as seven maids chosen from the palace; he treated her and her maids with special favor in the harem. 10 Now Esther had not disclosed her people or country, for Mordecai had commanded her not to make it known. 11 And every day Mordecai walked in the courtyard of the harem, to see what would happen to Esther.

12 Now the period after which a girl was to go to the king was twelve months. During this time the days of beautification are completed—six months while they are anointing themselves with oil of myrrh, and six months with spices and ointments for women. 13 Then she goes in to the king; she is handed to the person appointed, and goes with him from the harem to the king’s palace. 14 In the evening she enters and in the morning she departs to the second harem, where Gai the king’s eunuch is in charge of the women; and she does not go in to the king again unless she is summoned by name.

15 When the time was fulfilled for Esther daughter of Aminadab, the brother of Mordecai’s father, to go in to the king, she neglected none of the things that Gai, the eunuch in charge of the women, had commanded. Now Esther found favor in the eyes of all who saw her. 16 So Esther went in to King Artaxerxes in the twelfth month, which is Adar, in the seventh year of his reign. 17 And the king loved Esther and she found favor beyond all the other virgins, so he put on her the queen’s diadem. 18 Then the king gave a banquet lasting seven days for all his Friends and the officers to celebrate his marriage to Esther; and he granted a remission of taxes to those who were under his rule.

The Plot Discovered

19 Meanwhile Mordecai was serving in the courtyard. 20 Esther had not disclosed her country—such were the instructions of Mordecai; but she was to fear God and keep his laws, just as she had done when she was with him. So Esther did not change her mode of life.

21 Now the king’s eunuchs, who were chief bodyguards, were angry because of Mordecai’s advancement, and they plotted to kill King Artaxerxes. 22 The matter became known to Mordecai, and he warned Esther, who in turn revealed the plot to the king. 23 He investigated the two eunuchs and hanged them. Then the king ordered a memorandum to be deposited in the royal library in praise of the goodwill shown by Mordecai.

Mordecai Refuses to Do Obeisance

After these events King Artaxerxes promoted Haman son of Hammedatha, a Bougean, advancing him and granting him precedence over all the king’s[q] Friends. So all who were at court used to do obeisance to Haman,[r] for so the king had commanded to be done. Mordecai, however, did not do obeisance. Then the king’s courtiers said to Mordecai, “Mordecai, why do you disobey the king’s command?” Day after day they spoke to him, but he would not listen to them. Then they informed Haman that Mordecai was resisting the king’s command. Mordecai had told them that he was a Jew. So when Haman learned that Mordecai was not doing obeisance to him, he became furiously angry, and plotted to destroy all the Jews under Artaxerxes’ rule.

In the twelfth year of King Artaxerxes Haman[s] came to a decision by casting lots, taking the days and the months one by one, to fix on one day to destroy the whole race of Mordecai. The lot fell on the fourteenth[t] day of the month of Adar.

Decree against the Jews

Then Haman[u] said to King Artaxerxes, “There is a certain nation scattered among the other nations in all your kingdom; their laws are different from those of every other nation, and they do not keep the laws of the king. It is not expedient for the king to tolerate them. If it pleases the king, let it be decreed that they are to be destroyed, and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver into the king’s treasury.” 10 So the king took off his signet ring and gave it to Haman to seal the decree[v] that was to be written against the Jews. 11 The king told Haman, “Keep the money, and do whatever you want with that nation.”

12 So on the thirteenth day of the first month the king’s secretaries were summoned, and in accordance with Haman’s instructions they wrote in the name of King Artaxerxes to the magistrates and the governors in every province from India to Ethiopia. There were one hundred twenty-seven provinces in all, and the governors were addressed each in his own language. 13 Instructions were sent by couriers throughout all the empire of Artaxerxes to destroy the Jewish people on a given day of the twelfth month, which is Adar, and to plunder their goods.


Addition B

The King’s Letter

13 [w] This is a copy of the letter: “The Great King, Artaxerxes, writes the following to the governors of the hundred twenty-seven provinces from India to Ethiopia and to the officials under them:

“Having become ruler of many nations and master of the whole world (not elated with presumption of authority but always acting reasonably and with kindness), I have determined to settle the lives of my subjects in lasting tranquility and, in order to make my kingdom peaceable and open to travel throughout all its extent, to restore the peace desired by all people.

“When I asked my counselors how this might be accomplished, Haman—who excels among us in sound judgment, and is distinguished for his unchanging goodwill and steadfast fidelity, and has attained the second place in the kingdom— pointed out to us that among all the nations in the world there is scattered a certain hostile people, who have laws contrary to those of every nation and continually disregard the ordinances of kings, so that the unifying of the kingdom that we honorably intend cannot be brought about. We understand that this people, and it alone, stands constantly in opposition to every nation, perversely following a strange manner of life and laws, and is ill-disposed to our government, doing all the harm they can so that our kingdom may not attain stability.

“Therefore we have decreed that those indicated to you in the letters written by Haman, who is in charge of affairs and is our second father, shall all—wives and children included—be utterly destroyed by the swords of their enemies, without pity or restraint, on the fourteenth day of the twelfth month, Adar, of this present year, so that those who have long been hostile and remain so may in a single day go down in violence to Hades, and leave our government completely secure and untroubled hereafter.”

End of Addition B


14 Copies of the document were posted in every province, and all the nations were ordered to be prepared for that day. 15 The matter was expedited also in Susa. And while the king and Haman caroused together, the city of Susa[x] was thrown into confusion.

Mordecai Seeks Esther’s Aid

When Mordecai learned of all that had been done, he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth, and sprinkled himself with ashes; then he rushed through the street of the city, shouting loudly: “An innocent nation is being destroyed!” He got as far as the king’s gate, and there he stopped, because no one was allowed to enter the courtyard clothed in sackcloth and ashes. And in every province where the king’s proclamation had been posted there was a loud cry of mourning and lamentation among the Jews, and they put on sackcloth and ashes. When the queen’s[y] maids and eunuchs came and told her, she was deeply troubled by what she heard had happened, and sent some clothes to Mordecai to put on instead of sackcloth; but he would not consent. Then Esther summoned Hachratheus, the eunuch who attended her, and ordered him to get accurate information for her from Mordecai.[z]

So Mordecai told him what had happened and how Haman had promised to pay ten thousand talents into the royal treasury to bring about the destruction of the Jews. He also gave him a copy of what had been posted in Susa for their destruction, to show to Esther; and he told him to charge her to go in to the king and plead for his favor in behalf of the people. “Remember,” he said, “the days when you were an ordinary person, being brought up under my care—for Haman, who stands next to the king, has spoken against us and demands our death. Call upon the Lord; then speak to the king in our behalf, and save us from death.”

Hachratheus went in and told Esther all these things. 10 And she said to him, “Go to Mordecai and say, 11 ‘All nations of the empire know that if any man or woman goes to the king inside the inner court without being called, there is no escape for that person. Only the one to whom the king stretches out the golden scepter is safe—and it is now thirty days since I was called to go to the king.’”

12 When Hachratheus delivered her entire message to Mordecai, 13 Mordecai told him to go back and say to her, “Esther, do not say to yourself that you alone among all the Jews will escape alive. 14 For if you keep quiet at such a time as this, help and protection will come to the Jews from another quarter, but you and your father’s family will perish. Yet, who knows whether it was not for such a time as this that you were made queen?” 15 Then Esther gave the messenger this answer to take back to Mordecai: 16 “Go and gather all the Jews who are in Susa and fast on my behalf; for three days and nights do not eat or drink, and my maids and I will also go without food. After that I will go to the king, contrary to the law, even if I must die.” 17 So Mordecai went away and did what Esther had told him to do.


Addition C

Mordecai’s Prayer

13 [aa] Then Mordecai[ab] prayed to the Lord, calling to remembrance all the works of the Lord.

He said, “O Lord, Lord, you rule as King over all things, for the universe is in your power and there is no one who can oppose you when it is your will to save Israel, 10 for you have made heaven and earth and every wonderful thing under heaven. 11 You are Lord of all, and there is no one who can resist you, the Lord. 12 You know all things; you know, O Lord, that it was not in insolence or pride or for any love of glory that I did this, and refused to bow down to this proud Haman; 13 for I would have been willing to kiss the soles of his feet to save Israel! 14 But I did this so that I might not set human glory above the glory of God, and I will not bow down to anyone but you, who are my Lord; and I will not do these things in pride. 15 And now, O Lord God and King, God of Abraham, spare your people; for the eyes of our foes are upon us[ac] to annihilate us, and they desire to destroy the inheritance that has been yours from the beginning. 16 Do not neglect your portion, which you redeemed for yourself out of the land of Egypt. 17 Hear my prayer, and have mercy upon your inheritance; turn our mourning into feasting that we may live and sing praise to your name, O Lord; do not destroy the lips[ad] of those who praise you.”

18 And all Israel cried out mightily, for their death was before their eyes.

Esther’s Prayer

14 Then Queen Esther, seized with deadly anxiety, fled to the Lord. She took off her splendid apparel and put on the garments of distress and mourning, and instead of costly perfumes she covered her head with ashes and dung, and she utterly humbled her body; every part that she loved to adorn she covered with her tangled hair. She prayed to the Lord God of Israel, and said: “O my Lord, you only are our king; help me, who am alone and have no helper but you, for my danger is in my hand. Ever since I was born I have heard in the tribe of my family that you, O Lord, took Israel out of all the nations, and our ancestors from among all their forebears, for an everlasting inheritance, and that you did for them all that you promised. And now we have sinned before you, and you have handed us over to our enemies because we glorified their gods. You are righteous, O Lord! And now they are not satisfied that we are in bitter slavery, but they have covenanted with their idols to abolish what your mouth has ordained, and to destroy your inheritance, to stop the mouths of those who praise you and to quench your altar and the glory of your house, 10 to open the mouths of the nations for the praise of vain idols, and to magnify forever a mortal king.

11 “O Lord, do not surrender your scepter to what has no being; and do not let them laugh at our downfall; but turn their plan against them, and make an example of him who began this against us. 12 Remember, O Lord; make yourself known in this time of our affliction, and give me courage, O King of the gods and Master of all dominion! 13 Put eloquent speech in my mouth before the lion, and turn his heart to hate the man who is fighting against us, so that there may be an end of him and those who agree with him. 14 But save us by your hand, and help me, who am alone and have no helper but you, O Lord. 15 You have knowledge of all things, and you know that I hate the splendor of the wicked and abhor the bed of the uncircumcised and of any alien. 16 You know my necessity—that I abhor the sign of my proud position, which is upon my head on days when I appear in public. I abhor it like a filthy rag, and I do not wear it on the days when I am at leisure. 17 And your servant has not eaten at Haman’s table, and I have not honored the king’s feast or drunk the wine of libations. 18 Your servant has had no joy since the day that I was brought here until now, except in you, O Lord God of Abraham. 19 O God, whose might is over all, hear the voice of the despairing, and save us from the hands of evildoers. And save me from my fear!”

End of Addition C


Addition D

Esther Is Received by the King

15 On the third day, when she ended her prayer, she took off the garments in which she had worshiped, and arrayed herself in splendid attire. Then, majestically adorned, after invoking the aid of the all-seeing God and Savior, she took two maids with her; on one she leaned gently for support, while the other followed, carrying her train. She was radiant with perfect beauty, and she looked happy, as if beloved, but her heart was frozen with fear. When she had gone through all the doors, she stood before the king. He was seated on his royal throne, clothed in the full array of his majesty, all covered with gold and precious stones. He was most terrifying.

Lifting his face, flushed with splendor, he looked at her in fierce anger. The queen faltered, and turned pale and faint, and collapsed on the head of the maid who went in front of her. Then God changed the spirit of the king to gentleness, and in alarm he sprang from his throne and took her in his arms until she came to herself. He comforted her with soothing words, and said to her, “What is it, Esther? I am your husband.[ae] Take courage; 10 You shall not die, for our law applies only to our subjects.[af] Come near.”

11 Then he raised the golden scepter and touched her neck with it; 12 he embraced her, and said, “Speak to me.” 13 She said to him, “I saw you, my lord, like an angel of God, and my heart was shaken with fear at your glory. 14 For you are wonderful, my lord, and your countenance is full of grace.” 15 And while she was speaking, she fainted and fell. 16 Then the king was agitated, and all his servants tried to comfort her.

End of Addition D


[ag] The king said to her, “What do you wish, Esther? What is your request? It shall be given you, even to half of my kingdom.” And Esther said, “Today is a special day for me. If it pleases the king, let him and Haman come to the dinner that I shall prepare today.” Then the king said, “Bring Haman quickly, so that we may do as Esther desires.” So they both came to the dinner that Esther had spoken about. While they were drinking wine, the king said to Esther, “What is it, Queen Esther? It shall be granted you.” She said, “My petition and request is: if I have found favor in the sight of the king, let the king and Haman come to the dinner that I shall prepare them, and tomorrow I will do as I have done today.”

Haman’s Plot against Mordecai

So Haman went out from the king joyful and glad of heart. But when he saw Mordecai the Jew in the courtyard, he was filled with anger. 10 Nevertheless, he went home and summoned his friends and his wife Zosara. 11 And he told them about his riches and the honor that the king had bestowed on him, and how he had advanced him to be the first in the kingdom. 12 And Haman said, “The queen did not invite anyone to the dinner with the king except me; and I am invited again tomorrow. 13 But these things give me no pleasure as long as I see Mordecai the Jew in the courtyard.” 14 His wife Zosara and his friends said to him, “Let a gallows be made, fifty cubits high, and in the morning tell the king to have Mordecai hanged on it. Then, go merrily with the king to the dinner.” This advice pleased Haman, and so the gallows was prepared.

Mordecai’s Reward from the King

That night the Lord took sleep from the king, so he gave orders to his secretary to bring the book of daily records, and to read to him. He found the words written about Mordecai, how he had told the king about the two royal eunuchs who were on guard and sought to lay hands on King Artaxerxes. The king said, “What honor or dignity did we bestow on Mordecai?” The king’s servants said, “You have not done anything for him.” While the king was inquiring about the goodwill shown by Mordecai, Haman was in the courtyard. The king asked, “Who is in the courtyard?” Now Haman had come to speak to the king about hanging Mordecai on the gallows that he had prepared. The servants of the king answered, “Haman is standing in the courtyard.” And the king said, “Summon him.” Then the king said to Haman, “What shall I do for the person whom I wish to honor?” And Haman said to himself, “Whom would the king wish to honor more than me?” So he said to the king, “For a person whom the king wishes to honor, let the king’s servants bring out the fine linen robe that the king has worn, and the horse on which the king rides, and let both be given to one of the king’s honored Friends, and let him robe the person whom the king loves and mount him on the horse, and let it be proclaimed through the open square of the city, saying, ‘Thus shall it be done to everyone whom the king honors.’” 10 Then the king said to Haman, “You have made an excellent suggestion! Do just as you have said for Mordecai the Jew, who is on duty in the courtyard. And let nothing be omitted from what you have proposed.” 11 So Haman got the robe and the horse; he put the robe on Mordecai and made him ride through the open square of the city, proclaiming, “Thus shall it be done to everyone whom the king wishes to honor.” 12 Then Mordecai returned to the courtyard, and Haman hurried back to his house, mourning and with his head covered. 13 Haman told his wife Zosara and his friends what had befallen him. His friends and his wife said to him, “If Mordecai is of the Jewish people, and you have begun to be humiliated before him, you will surely fall. You will not be able to defend yourself, because the living God is with him.”

Haman at Esther’s Banquet

14 While they were still talking, the eunuchs arrived and hurriedly brought Haman to the banquet that Esther had prepared. So the king and Haman went in to drink with the queen. And the second day, as they were drinking wine, the king said, “What is it, Queen Esther? What is your petition and what is your request? It shall be granted to you, even to half of my kingdom.” She answered and said, “If I have found favor with the king, let my life be granted me at my petition, and my people at my request. For we have been sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, plundered, and made slaves—we and our children—male and female slaves. This has come to my knowledge. Our antagonist brings shame on[ah] the king’s court.” Then the king said, “Who is the person that would dare to do this thing?” Esther said, “Our enemy is this evil man Haman!” At this, Haman was terrified in the presence of the king and queen.

Punishment of Haman

The king rose from the banquet and went into the garden, and Haman began to beg for his life from the queen, for he saw that he was in serious trouble. When the king returned from the garden, Haman had thrown himself on the couch, pleading with the queen. The king said, “Will he dare even assault my wife in my own house?” Haman, when he heard, turned away his face. Then Bugathan, one of the eunuchs, said to the king, “Look, Haman has even prepared a gallows for Mordecai, who gave information of concern to the king; it is standing at Haman’s house, a gallows fifty cubits high.” So the king said, “Let Haman be hanged on that.” 10 So Haman was hanged on the gallows he had prepared for Mordecai. With that the anger of the king abated.

Royal Favor Shown the Jews

On that very day King Artaxerxes granted to Esther all the property of the persecutor[ai] Haman. Mordecai was summoned by the king, for Esther had told the king[aj] that he was related to her. The king took the ring that had been taken from Haman, and gave it to Mordecai; and Esther set Mordecai over everything that had been Haman’s.

Then she spoke once again to the king and, falling at his feet, she asked him to avert all the evil that Haman had planned against the Jews. The king extended his golden scepter to Esther, and she rose and stood before the king. Esther said, “If it pleases you, and if I have found favor, let an order be sent rescinding the letters that Haman wrote and sent to destroy the Jews in your kingdom. How can I look on the ruin of my people? How can I be safe if my ancestral nation[ak] is destroyed?” The king said to Esther, “Now that I[al] have granted all of Haman’s property to you and have hanged him on a tree because he acted against the Jews, what else do you request? Write in my name what you think best and seal it with my ring; for whatever is written at the king’s command and sealed with my ring cannot be contravened.”

The secretaries were summoned on the twenty-third day of the first month, that is, Nisan, in the same year; and all that he commanded with respect to the Jews was given in writing to the administrators and governors of the provinces from India to Ethiopia, one hundred twenty-seven provinces, to each province in its own language. 10 The edict was written[am] with the king’s authority and sealed with his ring, and sent out by couriers. 11 He ordered the Jews in every city to observe their own laws, to defend themselves, and to act as they wished against their opponents and enemies 12 on a certain day, the thirteenth of the twelfth month, which is Adar, throughout all the kingdom of Artaxerxes.


Addition E

The Decree of Artaxerxes

16 [an] The following is a copy of this letter:

“The Great King, Artaxerxes, to the governors of the provinces from India to Ethiopia, one hundred twenty-seven provinces, and to those who are loyal to our government, greetings.

“Many people, the more they are honored with the most generous kindness of their benefactors, the more proud do they become, and not only seek to injure our subjects, but in their inability to stand prosperity, they even undertake to scheme against their own benefactors. They not only take away thankfulness from others, but, carried away by the boasts of those who know nothing of goodness, they even assume that they will escape the evil-hating justice of God, who always sees everything. And often many of those who are set in places of authority have been made in part responsible for the shedding of innocent blood, and have been involved in irremediable calamities, by the persuasion of friends who have been entrusted with the administration of public affairs, when these persons by the false trickery of their evil natures beguile the sincere goodwill of their sovereigns.

“What has been wickedly accomplished through the pestilent behavior of those who exercise authority unworthily can be seen, not so much from the more ancient records that we hand on, as from investigation of matters close at hand.[ao] In the future we will take care to render our kingdom quiet and peaceable for all, by changing our methods and always judging what comes before our eyes with more equitable consideration. 10 For Haman son of Hammedatha, a Macedonian (really an alien to the Persian blood, and quite devoid of our kindliness), having become our guest, 11 enjoyed so fully the goodwill that we have for every nation that he was called our father and was continually bowed down to by all as the person second to the royal throne. 12 But, unable to restrain his arrogance, he undertook to deprive us of our kingdom and our life,[ap] 13 and with intricate craft and deceit asked for the destruction of Mordecai, our savior and perpetual benefactor, and of Esther, the blameless partner of our kingdom, together with their whole nation. 14 He thought that by these methods he would catch us undefended and would transfer the kingdom of the Persians to the Macedonians.

15 “But we find that the Jews, who were consigned to annihilation by this thrice-accursed man, are not evildoers, but are governed by most righteous laws 16 and are children of the living God, most high, most mighty,[aq] who has directed the kingdom both for us and for our ancestors in the most excellent order.

17 “You will therefore do well not to put in execution the letters sent by Haman son of Hammedatha, 18 since he, the one who did these things, has been hanged at the gate of Susa with all his household—for God, who rules over all things, has speedily inflicted on him the punishment that he deserved.

19 “Therefore post a copy of this letter publicly in every place, and permit the Jews to live under their own laws. 20 And give them reinforcements, so that on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, Adar, on that very day, they may defend themselves against those who attack them at the time of oppression. 21 For God, who rules over all things, has made this day to be a joy for his chosen people instead of a day of destruction for them.

22 “Therefore you shall observe this with all good cheer as a notable day among your commemorative festivals, 23 so that both now and hereafter it may represent deliverance for you[ar] and the loyal Persians, but that it may be a reminder of destruction for those who plot against us.

24 “Every city and country, without exception, that does not act accordingly shall be destroyed in wrath with spear and fire. It shall be made not only impassable for human beings, but also most hateful to wild animals and birds for all time.

End of Addition E


13 “Let copies of the decree be posted conspicuously in all the kingdom, and let all the Jews be ready on that day to fight against their enemies.”

14 So the messengers on horseback set out with all speed to perform what the king had commanded; and the decree was published also in Susa. 15 Mordecai went out dressed in the royal robe and wearing a gold crown and a turban of purple linen. The people in Susa rejoiced on seeing him. 16 And the Jews had light and gladness 17 in every city and province wherever the decree was published; wherever the proclamation was made, the Jews had joy and gladness, a banquet and a holiday. And many of the Gentiles were circumcised and became Jews out of fear of the Jews.

Victory of the Jews

Now on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is Adar, the decree written by the king arrived. On that same day the enemies of the Jews perished; no one resisted, because they feared them. The chief provincial governors, the princes, and the royal secretaries were paying honor to the Jews, because fear of Mordecai weighed upon them. The king’s decree required that Mordecai’s name be held in honor throughout the kingdom.[as] Now in the city of Susa the Jews killed five hundred people, including Pharsannestain, Delphon, Phasga, Pharadatha, Barea, Sarbacha, Marmasima, Aruphaeus, Arsaeus, Zabutheus, 10 the ten sons of Haman son of Hammedatha, the Bougean, the enemy of the Jews—and they indulged[at] themselves in plunder.

11 That very day the number of those killed in Susa was reported to the king. 12 The king said to Esther, “In Susa, the capital, the Jews have destroyed five hundred people. What do you suppose they have done in the surrounding countryside? Whatever more you ask will be done for you.” 13 And Esther said to the king, “Let the Jews be allowed to do the same tomorrow. Also, hang up the bodies of Haman’s ten sons.” 14 So he permitted this to be done, and handed over to the Jews of the city the bodies of Haman’s sons to hang up. 15 The Jews who were in Susa gathered on the fourteenth and killed three hundred people, but took no plunder.

16 Now the other Jews in the kingdom gathered to defend themselves, and got relief from their enemies. They destroyed fifteen thousand of them, but did not engage in plunder. 17 On the fourteenth day they rested and made that same day a day of rest, celebrating it with joy and gladness. 18 The Jews who were in Susa, the capital, came together also on the fourteenth, but did not rest. They celebrated the fifteenth with joy and gladness. 19 On this account then the Jews who are scattered around the country outside Susa keep the fourteenth of Adar as a joyful holiday, and send presents of food to one another, while those who live in the large cities keep the fifteenth day of Adar as their joyful holiday, also sending presents to one another.

The Festival of Purim

20 Mordecai recorded these things in a book, and sent it to the Jews in the kingdom of Artaxerxes both near and far, 21 telling them that they should keep the fourteenth and fifteenth days of Adar, 22 for on these days the Jews got relief from their enemies. The whole month (namely, Adar), in which their condition had been changed from sorrow into gladness and from a time of distress to a holiday, was to be celebrated as a time for feasting[au] and gladness and for sending presents of food to their friends and to the poor.

23 So the Jews accepted what Mordecai had written to them 24 —how Haman son of Hammedatha, the Macedonian,[av] fought against them, how he made a decree and cast lots[aw] to destroy them, 25 and how he went in to the king, telling him to hang Mordecai; but the wicked plot he had devised against the Jews came back upon himself, and he and his sons were hanged. 26 Therefore these days were called “Purim,” because of the lots (for in their language this is the word that means “lots”). And so, because of what was written in this letter, and because of what they had experienced in this affair and what had befallen them, Mordecai established this festival,[ax] 27 and the Jews took upon themselves, upon their descendants, and upon all who would join them, to observe it without fail.[ay] These days of Purim should be a memorial and kept from generation to generation, in every city, family, and country. 28 These days of Purim were to be observed for all time, and the commemoration of them was never to cease among their descendants.

29 Then Queen Esther daughter of Aminadab along with Mordecai the Jew wrote down what they had done, and gave full authority to the letter about Purim.[az] 31 And Mordecai and Queen Esther established this decision on their own responsibility, pledging their own well-being to the plan.[ba] 32 Esther established it by a decree forever, and it was written for a memorial.

10 The king levied a tax upon his kingdom both by land and sea. And as for his power and bravery, and the wealth and glory of his kingdom, they were recorded in the annals of the kings of the Persians and the Medes. Mordecai acted with authority on behalf of King Artaxerxes and was great in the kingdom, as well as honored by the Jews. His way of life was such as to make him beloved to his whole nation.


Addition F

Mordecai’s Dream Fulfilled

[bb] And Mordecai said, “These things have come from God; for I remember the dream that I had concerning these matters, and none of them has failed to be fulfilled. There was the little spring that became a river, and there was light and sun and abundant water—the river is Esther, whom the king married and made queen. The two dragons are Haman and myself. The nations are those that gathered to destroy the name of the Jews. And my nation, this is Israel, who cried out to God and was saved. The Lord has saved his people; the Lord has rescued us from all these evils; God has done great signs and wonders, wonders that have never happened among the nations. 10 For this purpose he made two lots, one for the people of God and one for all the nations, 11 and these two lots came to the hour and moment and day of decision before God and among all the nations. 12 And God remembered his people and vindicated his inheritance. 13 So they will observe these days in the month of Adar, on the fourteenth and fifteenth[bc] of that month, with an assembly and joy and gladness before God, from generation to generation forever among his people Israel.”

Postscript

11 In the fourth year of the reign of Ptolemy and Cleopatra, Dositheus, who said that he was a priest and a Levite,[bd] and his son Ptolemy brought to Egypt[be] the preceding Letter about Purim, which they said was authentic and had been translated by Lysimachus son of Ptolemy, one of the residents of Jerusalem.

End of Addition F


Footnotes:

  1. Greek Esther 1:1 Chapters 11.2—12.6 correspond to chapter A 1–17 in some translations.
  2. Greek Esther 1:1 Gk Semeios
  3. Greek Esther 1:1 Or Voices
  4. Greek Esther 1:1 Gk their own evils
  5. Greek Esther 1:1 Other ancient authorities lack to Ethiopia
  6. Greek Esther 1:5 Gk marriage feast
  7. Greek Esther 1:9 Gk Astin
  8. Greek Esther 1:12 Gk Astin
  9. Greek Esther 1:13 Gk Astin
  10. Greek Esther 1:13 Gk Astin has said thus and so
  11. Greek Esther 1:15 Gk Astin
  12. Greek Esther 1:16 Gk Astin
  13. Greek Esther 2:1 Gk Astin
  14. Greek Esther 2:4 Gk Astin
  15. Greek Esther 2:5 Gk Semeios
  16. Greek Esther 2:9 Gk lacks of food
  17. Greek Esther 3:1 Gk all his
  18. Greek Esther 3:2 Gk him
  19. Greek Esther 3:7 Gk he
  20. Greek Esther 3:7 Other ancient witnesses read thirteenth; see 8.12
  21. Greek Esther 3:8 Gk he
  22. Greek Esther 3:10 Gk lacks the decree
  23. Greek Esther 3:13 Chapter 13.1–7 corresponds to chapter B 1–7 in some translations.
  24. Greek Esther 3:15 Gk the city
  25. Greek Esther 4:4 Gk When her
  26. Greek Esther 4:5 Other ancient witnesses add So Hachratheus went out to Mordecai in the street of the city opposite the city gate.
  27. Greek Esther 5:1 Chapters 13.8—15.16 correspond to chapters C 1–30 and D 1–16 in some translations.
  28. Greek Esther 5:1 Gk he
  29. Greek Esther 5:1 Gk for they are eying us
  30. Greek Esther 5:1 Gk mouth
  31. Greek Esther 5:1 Gk brother
  32. Greek Esther 5:1 Meaning of Gk uncertain
  33. Greek Esther 5:1 In Greek, Chapter D replaces verses 1 and 2 in Hebrew.
  34. Greek Esther 7:4 Gk is not worthy of
  35. Greek Esther 8:1 Gk slanderer
  36. Greek Esther 8:1 Gk him
  37. Greek Esther 8:6 Gk country
  38. Greek Esther 8:7 Gk If I
  39. Greek Esther 8:10 Gk It was written
  40. Greek Esther 8:12 Chapter 16.1–24 corresponds to chapter E 1–24 in some translations.
  41. Greek Esther 8:12 Gk matters beside (your) feet
  42. Greek Esther 8:12 Gk our spirit
  43. Greek Esther 8:12 Gk greatest
  44. Greek Esther 8:12 Other ancient authorities read for us
  45. Greek Esther 9:4 Meaning of Gk uncertain. Some ancient authorities add verse 5, So the Jews struck down all their enemies with the sword, killing and destroying them, and they did as they pleased to those who hated them.
  46. Greek Esther 9:10 Other ancient authorities read did not indulge
  47. Greek Esther 9:22 Gk of weddings
  48. Greek Esther 9:24 Other ancient witnesses read the Bougean
  49. Greek Esther 9:24 Gk a lot
  50. Greek Esther 9:26 Gk he established (it)
  51. Greek Esther 9:27 Meaning of Gk uncertain
  52. Greek Esther 9:29 Verse 30 in Heb is lacking in Gk: Letters were sent to all the Jews, to the one hundred twenty-seven provinces of the kingdom of Ahasuerus, in words of peace and truth.
  53. Greek Esther 9:31 Meaning of Gk uncertain
  54. Greek Esther 10:4 Chapter 10.4–13 and 11.1 correspond to chapter F 1–11 in some translations.
  55. Greek Esther 10:13 Other ancient authorities lack and fifteenth
  56. Greek Esther 10:13 Or priest, and Levitas
  57. Greek Esther 10:13 Cn: Gk brought in
New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)

New Revised Standard Version Bible, copyright © 1989 the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

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