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Proof of the Covenant

17 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to him and said, “I am ·God Almighty [L El Shaddai]. ·Obey [L Walk before] me and ·do what is right [L be innocent/blameless; Job 1:1]. I will make an ·agreement [covenant; treaty; 6:18] between ·us [L me and you], and I will make you ·the ancestor of many people [L exceedingly numerous].”

Then Abram ·bowed facedown on the ground [L fell on his face]. God said to him, “I am making my ·agreement [covenant; treaty; 6:18] with you: I will make you the father of ·many [L a host/multitude of] nations. I am changing your name from Abram [C meaning “exalted father”] to Abraham [C sounds like “father of a multitude” in Hebrew] because I am making you a father of ·many [L a host/multitude of] nations. I will ·give you many descendants [L cause you to be exceedingly fruitful; 1:22]. ·New nations will be born from you [L I will make nations of you], and kings will come from you. And I will make an ·agreement [covenant; treaty; 6:18] between me and you and all your ·descendants [L seed] ·from now on [or forever]: I will be your God and the God of all your descendants. You live in the land of Canaan now as a ·stranger [sojourner; wanderer; resident alien], but I will give you and your ·descendants [L seed] all this land ·forever [L as a permanent possesssion]. And I will be the God of your ·descendants [L seed].”

Then God said to Abraham, “You and your ·descendants [seed] must ·keep [obey; guard] this ·agreement [covenant; treaty; 6:18] ·from now on [L throughout their generations]. 10 This is my ·agreement [covenant; treaty; 6:18] with you and all your ·descendants [L seed], which you must ·obey [keep; guard]: Every male among you must be circumcised [C the ritual of membership in the covenant/treaty]. 11 ·Cut away [Circumcise] [L the flesh of] your foreskin ·to show that you are prepared to follow the agreement [L as a sign of the covenant/treaty] between me and you. 12 ·From now on [L Throughout your generations] when a baby boy is eight days old, you will circumcise him. This includes any ·boy born among your people [L house-born slave] or any who is ·your slave [L bought with money from a foreigner], who is not one of your ·descendants [L seed]. 13 Circumcise every baby boy whether he is born in your ·family [L house] or bought ·as a slave [L with money from a foreigner]. ·Your bodies will be marked to show that you are part of my agreement [L …so that my covenant/treaty might be in your flesh as a covenant/treaty] that lasts forever. 14 Any [L uncircumcised] male ·who [L whose foreskin] is not circumcised will be cut off from his people, because he has broken my ·agreement [covenant; treaty; 6:18].”

Isaac—the Promised Son

15 God said to Abraham, “I will change the name of Sarai [C meaning “princess” in her native dialect; 11:29], your wife, to Sarah [C also meaning “princess,” but in a dialect of Canaan, signifying her transition to the Promised Land]. 16 I will bless her and give ·her a son, and you will be the father [L from her to you a son]. She will ·be the mother of [give rise to] many nations. Kings of nations will come from her.”

17 Abraham ·bowed facedown on the ground [L fell on his face] and laughed. He ·said to himself [thought; L said in his heart], “Can a man have a child when he is a hundred years old? Can Sarah give birth to a child when she is ninety?” 18 Then Abraham said to God, “Please let Ishmael ·be the son you promised [L live before you].”

19 God said, “·No, [or Yes, but] Sarah your wife will have a son, and you will name him Isaac [C related to the verb meaning “to laugh”]. I will make my ·agreement [covenant; treaty; 6:18] with him to be an ·agreement that continues forever [eternal covenant/treaty] with all his ·descendants [L seed].

20 “As for Ishmael, I have heard you. I will bless him and ·give him many descendants [L make him fruitful]. And I will cause their numbers to grow greatly. He will be the father of twelve great ·leaders [princes; chiefs; 25:16], and I will make him into a great nation. 21 But I will make my ·agreement [covenant; treaty; 6:18] with Isaac, the son whom Sarah will have at this same time next year.” 22 After ·God [L he] finished talking with Abraham, God ·rose and left him [L went up from Abraham].

23 Then Abraham ·gathered [L took] Ishmael, all the males ·born in his camp [L of his house], and ·the slaves he had bought [L those bought with money]. So that day Abraham circumcised [L the flesh of his foreskin of] every man and boy in his camp as God had told him to do. 24 Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he ·was circumcised [L circumcised the flesh of his foreskin]. 25 And Ishmael, his son, was thirteen years old when he was circumcised [L in the flesh of his foreskin]. 26 Abraham and his son were circumcised on the same day. 27 Also on that day all the men in Abraham’s camp were circumcised, including all those born in his ·camp [L house] and all ·the slaves he had bought from other nations [L all those bought of a stranger].