Hagar and Sarah

21 Tell me, you who want to be under the law,(A) are you not aware of what the law says? 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the slave woman(B) and the other by the free woman.(C) 23 His son by the slave woman was born according to the flesh,(D) but his son by the free woman was born as the result of a divine promise.(E)

24 These things are being taken figuratively: The women represent two covenants. One covenant is from Mount Sinai and bears children who are to be slaves: This is Hagar. 25 Now Hagar stands for Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present city of Jerusalem, because she is in slavery with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem that is above(F) is free, and she is our mother. 27 For it is written:

“Be glad, barren woman,
    you who never bore a child;
shout for joy and cry aloud,
    you who were never in labor;
because more are the children of the desolate woman
    than of her who has a husband.”[a](G)

28 Now you, brothers and sisters, like Isaac, are children of promise.(H) 29 At that time the son born according to the flesh(I) persecuted the son born by the power of the Spirit.(J) It is the same now. 30 But what does Scripture say? “Get rid of the slave woman and her son, for the slave woman’s son will never share in the inheritance with the free woman’s son.”[b](K) 31 Therefore, brothers and sisters, we are not children of the slave woman,(L) but of the free woman.(M)

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  1. Galatians 4:27 Isaiah 54:1
  2. Galatians 4:30 Gen. 21:10

The Mountain of Fear and the Mountain of Joy

18 You have not come to a mountain that can be touched and that is burning with fire; to darkness, gloom and storm;(A) 19 to a trumpet blast(B) or to such a voice speaking words(C) that those who heard it begged that no further word be spoken to them,(D) 20 because they could not bear what was commanded: “If even an animal touches the mountain, it must be stoned to death.”[a](E) 21 The sight was so terrifying that Moses said, “I am trembling with fear.”[b](F)

22 But you have come to Mount Zion,(G) to the city(H) of the living God,(I) the heavenly Jerusalem.(J) You have come to thousands upon thousands of angels in joyful assembly, 23 to the church of the firstborn,(K) whose names are written in heaven.(L) You have come to God, the Judge of all,(M) to the spirits of the righteous made perfect,(N) 24 to Jesus the mediator(O) of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood(P) that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel.(Q)

25 See to it that you do not refuse(R) him who speaks.(S) If they did not escape when they refused him who warned(T) them on earth, how much less will we, if we turn away from him who warns us from heaven?(U) 26 At that time his voice shook the earth,(V) but now he has promised, “Once more I will shake not only the earth but also the heavens.”[c](W) 27 The words “once more” indicate the removing of what can be shaken(X)—that is, created things—so that what cannot be shaken may remain.

28 Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken,(Y) let us be thankful, and so worship God acceptably with reverence and awe,(Z) 29 for our “God is a consuming fire.”[d](AA)

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  1. Hebrews 12:20 Exodus 19:12,13
  2. Hebrews 12:21 See Deut. 9:19.
  3. Hebrews 12:26 Haggai 2:6
  4. Hebrews 12:29 Deut. 4:24

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