The Priestly Garments

28 “Have your brother Aaron, with his sons, come to you from the Israelites to serve me as priest—Aaron, his sons Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.(A) Make holy garments(B) for your brother Aaron, for glory and beauty. You are to instruct all the skilled artisans,[a](C) whom I have filled with a spirit of wisdom, to make Aaron’s garments for consecrating him to serve me as priest. These are the garments that they must make: a breastpiece, an ephod, a robe, a specially woven tunic,[b] a turban, and a sash. They are to make holy garments for your brother Aaron and his sons so that they may serve me as priests. They should use[c] gold; blue, purple, and scarlet yarn; and fine linen.

The Ephod

“They(D) are to make the ephod of finely spun linen embroidered[d] with gold, and with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn. It must have two shoulder pieces attached to its two edges so that it can be joined together. The artistically woven waistband that is on the ephod[e] must be of one piece,[f] according to the same workmanship of gold, of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and of finely spun linen.

“Take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of Israel’s sons: 10 six of their names on the first stone and the remaining six names on the second stone, in the order of their birth. 11 Engrave the two stones with the names of Israel’s sons as a gem cutter engraves a seal. Mount them, surrounded with gold filigree settings. 12 Fasten both stones on the shoulder pieces of the ephod as memorial stones for the Israelites. Aaron will carry their names on his two shoulders before the Lord as a reminder.(E) 13 Fashion gold filigree settings 14 and two chains of pure gold; you will make them of braided cord work, and attach the cord chains to the settings.

The Breastpiece

15 “You(F) are to make an embroidered breastpiece for making decisions.[g] Make it with the same workmanship as the ephod; make it of gold, of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and of finely spun linen. 16 It must be square and folded double, nine inches long and nine inches wide.[h] 17 Place a setting of gemstones[i] on it, four rows of stones:

The first row should be

a row of carnelian, topaz, and emerald;[j]

18 the second row,

a turquoise,[k] a lapis lazuli, and a diamond;[l]

19 the third row,

a jacinth,[m] an agate, and an amethyst;

20 and the fourth row,

a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper.

They should be adorned with gold filigree in their settings. 21 The twelve stones are to correspond to the names of Israel’s sons. Each stone must be engraved like a seal, with one of the names of the twelve tribes.

22 “You are to make braided chains[n] of pure gold cord work for the breastpiece. 23 Fashion two gold rings for the breastpiece and attach them to its two corners. 24 Then attach the two gold cords to the two gold rings at the corners of the breastpiece. 25 Attach the other ends of the two cords to the two filigree settings, and in this way attach them to the ephod’s shoulder pieces in the front. 26 Make two other gold rings and put them at the two other corners of the breastpiece on the edge that is next to the inner border of the ephod. 27 Make two more gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the ephod’s two shoulder pieces on its front, close to its seam,[o] and above the ephod’s woven waistband. 28 The artisans are to tie the breastpiece from its rings to the rings of the ephod with a cord of blue yarn, so that the breastpiece is above the ephod’s waistband and does not come loose from the ephod.

29 “Whenever he enters the sanctuary, Aaron is to carry the names of Israel’s sons over his heart on the breastpiece for decisions, as a continual reminder before the Lord. 30 Place the Urim and Thummim(G) in the breastpiece for decisions, so that they will also be over Aaron’s heart whenever he comes before the Lord. Aaron will continually carry the means of decisions for the Israelites over his heart before the Lord.

The Robe

31 “You(H) are to make the robe of the ephod entirely of blue yarn. 32 There should be an opening at its top in the center of it. Around the opening, there should be a woven collar with an opening like that of body armor[p] so that it does not tear. 33 Make pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn on its lower hem and all around it. Put gold bells between them all the way around, 34 so that gold bells and pomegranates alternate around the lower hem of the robe. 35 The robe will be worn by Aaron whenever he ministers, and its sound will be heard when he enters the sanctuary before the Lord and when he exits, so that he does not die.

The Turban

36 “You are to make a pure gold medallion and engrave it, like the engraving of a seal:(I) Holy to the Lord. 37 Fasten it to a cord of blue yarn so it can be placed on the turban; the medallion is to be on the front of the turban. 38 It will be on Aaron’s forehead so that Aaron may bear the guilt(J) connected with the holy offerings that the Israelites consecrate as all their holy gifts. It is always to be on his forehead, so that they may find acceptance with the Lord.

Other Priestly Garments

39 “You are to weave the tunic from fine linen, make a turban of fine linen, and make an embroidered sash. 40 Make tunics, sashes, and headbands for Aaron’s sons to give them glory and beauty.(K) 41 Put these on your brother Aaron and his sons; then anoint,(L) ordain,[q] and consecrate(M) them, so that they may serve me as priests. 42 Make them linen undergarments(N) to cover their naked bodies; they must extend from the waist to the thighs. 43 These must be worn by Aaron and his sons whenever they enter the tent of meeting or approach the altar to minister in the sanctuary area, so that they do not incur guilt(O) and die. This is to be a permanent statute(P) for Aaron and for his future descendants.


  1. 28:3 Lit all wise of heart
  2. 28:4 Hb obscure
  3. 28:5 Lit receive
  4. 28:6 Or woven
  5. 28:8 Lit waistband of its ephod, which is on it
  6. 28:8 Lit piece with the ephod
  7. 28:15 Used for determining God’s will; Nm 27:21
  8. 28:16 Lit a span its length and a span its width
  9. 28:17 Many of these stones cannot be identified with certainty.
  10. 28:17 Or beryl
  11. 28:18 Or malachite, or garnet
  12. 28:18 Hb obscure; LXX, Vg read jasper
  13. 28:19 Hb obscure
  14. 28:22 The same chains mentioned in v. 14
  15. 28:27 The place where the shoulder pieces join the front of the ephod
  16. 28:32 Hb obscure
  17. 28:41 Lit anoint them, fill their hand

The Unbelief of Jesus’s Brothers

After this, Jesus traveled in Galilee,(A) since he did not want to travel in Judea(B) because the Jews(C) were trying to kill him.(D) The Jewish Festival of Shelters[a](E) was near. So his brothers(F) said to him, “Leave here and go to Judea so that your disciples can see your works(G) that you are doing. For no one does anything in secret while he’s seeking public recognition. If you do these things, show yourself to the world.” (For not even his brothers believed in him.)

Jesus told them, “My time(H) has not yet arrived, but your time is always at hand. The world cannot hate(I) you, but it does hate me because I testify about it—that its works are evil. Go up to the festival yourselves. I’m not going up to this festival,[b] because my time has not yet fully come.” After he had said these things, he stayed in Galilee.

Jesus at the Festival of Shelters

10 After his brothers had gone up to the festival, then he also went up, not openly but secretly. 11 The Jews were looking for him at the festival and saying, “Where is he?” 12 And there was a lot of murmuring about him among the crowds. Some were saying, “He’s a good(J) man.” Others were saying, “No, on the contrary, he’s deceiving(K) the people.” 13 Still, nobody was talking publicly about him for fear of the Jews.

14 When the festival was already half over, Jesus went up into the temple(L) and began to teach. 15 Then the Jews were amazed and said, “How is this man so learned,(M) since he hasn’t been trained?”

16 Jesus answered them, “My teaching isn’t mine but is from the one who sent me.(N) 17 If anyone wants to do his will,(O) he will know whether the teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own. 18 The one who speaks on his own seeks his own glory;(P) but he who seeks the glory(Q) of the one who sent him is true,(R) and there is no unrighteousness in him.(S) 19 Didn’t Moses(T) give you the law? Yet none of you keeps the law.(U) Why are you trying to kill me?”

20 “You have a demon!” the crowd responded. “Who is trying to kill you?”

21 “I performed one work,(V) and you are all amazed,” Jesus answered. 22 “This is why Moses has given you circumcision(W) —not that it comes from Moses but from the fathers(X) —and you circumcise a man on the Sabbath.(Y) 23 If a man receives circumcision on the Sabbath(Z) so that the law of Moses(AA) won’t be broken, are you angry at me because I made a man entirely well on the Sabbath? 24 Stop judging(AB) according to outward appearances; rather judge according to righteous judgment.”

The Identity of the Messiah

25 Some of the people of Jerusalem(AC) were saying, “Isn’t this the man they are trying to kill? 26 Yet, look, he’s speaking publicly and they’re saying nothing to him. Can it be true that the authorities(AD) know he is the Messiah?(AE) 27 But we know where this man is from.(AF) When the Messiah comes, nobody will know where he is from.”

28 As he was teaching in the temple,(AG) Jesus cried out, “You know me and you know where I am from. Yet I have not come on my own, but the one who sent me(AH) is true. You don’t know him;(AI) 29 I know him because I am from him, and he sent me.”(AJ)

30 Then they tried to seize him. Yet no one laid a hand on him because his hour had not yet come. 31 However, many from the crowd believed in him and said, “When the Messiah comes, he won’t perform more signs than this man has done,(AK) will he?” 32 The Pharisees(AL) heard the crowd murmuring these things about him, and so the chief priests(AM) and the Pharisees sent servants[c] to arrest him.

33 Then Jesus said, “I am only with you for a short time.(AN) Then I’m going to the one who sent me.(AO) 34 You will look for me, but you will not find me; and where I am, you cannot come.”(AP)

35 Then the Jews(AQ) said to one another, “Where does he intend to go that we won’t find him? He doesn’t intend to go to the Jewish people dispersed[d](AR) among the Greeks(AS) and teach the Greeks, does he? 36 What is this remark he made: ‘You will look for me, and you will not find me; and where I am, you cannot come’(AT)?”

The Promise of the Spirit

37 On the last and most important day of the festival,(AU) Jesus stood up and cried out, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me[e](AV) and drink.(AW) 38 The one who believes in me,(AX) as the Scripture(AY) has said, will have streams of living water(AZ) flow(BA) from deep within him.” 39 He said this about the Spirit.(BB) Those who believed in Jesus were going to receive the Spirit,(BC) for the Spirit[f] had not yet been given[g] because Jesus had not yet been glorified.

The People Are Divided over Jesus

40 When some from the crowd heard these words, they said, “This truly is the Prophet.”(BD) 41 Others said, “This is the Messiah.” But some said, “Surely the Messiah doesn’t come from Galilee, does he? 42 Doesn’t the Scripture(BE) say that the Messiah comes from David’s(BF) offspring[h] and from the town of Bethlehem,(BG) where David lived?” 43 So the crowd was divided(BH) because of him. 44 Some of them wanted to seize him,(BI) but no one laid hands on him.

Debate over Jesus’s Claims

45 Then the servants(BJ) came to the chief priests(BK) and Pharisees, who asked them, “Why didn’t you bring him?”

46 The servants answered, “No man ever spoke like this!” [i](BL)

47 Then the Pharisees responded to them, “Are you fooled(BM) too? 48 Have any of the rulers(BN) or Pharisees believed in him? 49 But this crowd, which doesn’t know the law, is accursed.”

50 Nicodemus(BO)—the one who came to him previously and who was one of them—said to them, 51 “Our law doesn’t judge a man before it hears from him and knows what he’s doing, does it?” (BP)

52 “You aren’t from Galilee(BQ) too, are you?” they replied. “Investigate and you will see that no prophet arises from Galilee.”(BR)

[The earliest mss do not include 7:53–8:11.]

[53 Then each one went to his house.[j]


  1. 7:2 Or Tabernacles, or Booths
  2. 7:8 Other mss add yet
  3. 7:32 Or temple police, or officers, also in vv. 45,46
  4. 7:35 Gk diaspora; Jewish people scattered throughout Gentile lands
  5. 7:37 Other mss omit to me
  6. 7:39 Other mss read Holy Spirit
  7. 7:39 Lit the Spirit was not yet
  8. 7:42 Lit seed
  9. 7:46 Other mss read like this man
  10. 7:53–8:11 Other mss include all or some of the passage after Jn 7:36,44,52; 21:25; or Lk 21:38.

A Father’s Example

Listen, sons, to a father’s discipline,(A)
and pay attention so that you may gain understanding,
for I am giving you good instruction.(B)
Don’t abandon my teaching.
When I was a son with my father,
tender and precious to my mother,
he taught me and said,
“Your heart must hold on to my words.
Keep my commands and live.(C)
Get wisdom, get understanding;(D)
don’t forget or turn away from the words from my mouth.
Don’t abandon wisdom, and she will watch over you;
love her,(E) and she will guard you.
Wisdom is supreme—so get wisdom.
And whatever else you get, get understanding.(F)
Cherish her, and she will exalt you;
if you embrace her, she will honor you.(G)
She will place a garland of favor on your head;
she will give you a crown of beauty.”(H)

Two Ways of Life

10 Listen, my son. Accept my words,(I)
and you will live many years.(J)
11 I am teaching you the way of wisdom;
I am guiding you on straight paths.(K)
12 When you walk, your steps will not be hindered;(L)
when you run, you will not stumble.(M)
13 Hold on to instruction; don’t let go.(N)
Guard it, for it is your life.
14 Keep off the path of the wicked;(O)
don’t proceed on the way of evil ones.
15 Avoid it; don’t travel on it.
Turn away from it, and pass it by.
16 For they can’t sleep
unless they have done what is evil;
they are robbed of sleep
unless they make someone stumble.(P)
17 They eat the bread of wickedness
and drink the wine of violence.
18 The path of the righteous is like the light of dawn,(Q)
shining brighter and brighter until midday.
19 But the way of the wicked is like the darkest gloom;(R)
they don’t know what makes them stumble.(S)

The Straight Path

20 My son, pay attention to my words;
listen closely to my sayings.(T)
21 Don’t lose sight of them;(U)
keep them within your heart.
22 For they are life to those who find them,
and health to one’s whole body.
23 Guard your heart above all else,[a]
for it is the source of life.(V)
24 Don’t let your mouth speak dishonestly,(W)
and don’t let your lips talk deviously.
25 Let your eyes look forward;
fix your gaze[b] straight ahead.(X)
26 Carefully consider the path[c] for your feet,(Y)
and all your ways will be established.
27 Don’t turn to the right or to the left;(Z)
keep your feet away from evil.


  1. 4:23 Or heart with all diligence
  2. 4:25 Lit eyelids
  3. 4:26 Or Clear a path

Justification through Faith

You foolish(A) Galatians! Who has cast a spell on you,[a] before whose eyes Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed[b] as crucified?(B) I only want to learn this from you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law or by believing what you heard?[c] Are you so foolish? After beginning by the Spirit, are you now finishing by the flesh? Did you experience[d](C) so much for nothing—if in fact it was for nothing? So then, does God give you the Spirit and work miracles(D) among you by your doing the works of the law? Or is it by believing what you heard— just like Abraham who believed God,(E) and it was credited to him for righteousness?[e](F)

You know, then, that those who have faith, these are Abraham’s sons.(G) Now the Scripture saw in advance that God would justify the Gentiles by faith and proclaimed the gospel ahead of time to Abraham,(H) saying, All the nations[f] will be blessed through you.[g](I) Consequently, those who have faith are blessed with Abraham,(J) who had faith.[h]

Law and Promise

10 For all who rely on the works of the law are under a curse,(K) because it is written,(L) Everyone who does not do everything written in the book of the law is cursed.[i](M) 11 Now it is clear that no one is justified before God by the law, because the righteous will live(N) by faith.[j](O) 12 But the law is not based on faith; instead, the one who does these things will live by them.[k](P) 13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us,(Q) because it is written, Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.[l](R) 14 The purpose was that the blessing of Abraham would come to the Gentiles by Christ Jesus, so that we could receive the promised Spirit through faith.(S)

15 Brothers and sisters, I’m using a human illustration. No one sets aside or makes additions to a validated human will.[m] 16 Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. He does not say “and to seeds,” as though referring to many, but referring to one, and to your seed,[n](T) who is Christ. 17 My point is this: The law, which came 430 years later,(U) does not invalidate a covenant previously established by God[o] and thus cancel the promise. 18 For if the inheritance is based on the law, it is no longer based on the promise; but God has graciously given it to Abraham through the promise.

The Purpose of the Law

19 Why, then, was the law given?(V) It was added for the sake of transgressions[p] until the Seed to whom the promise was made would come. The law was put into effect through angels(W) by means of a mediator.(X) 20 Now a mediator is not just for one person alone, but God is one.(Y) 21 Is the law therefore contrary to God’s promises? Absolutely not! For if the law had been granted with the ability to give life, then righteousness would certainly be on the basis of the law. 22 But the Scripture imprisoned everything under sin’s power,[q](Z) so that the promise might be given on the basis of faith(AA) in Jesus Christ to those who believe.(AB) 23 Before this faith(AC) came, we were confined under the law, imprisoned until the coming faith was revealed.(AD) 24 The law, then, was our guardian until Christ,(AE) so that we could be justified by faith. 25 But since that faith(AF) has come, we are no longer under a guardian, 26 for through faith you are all sons of God in Christ Jesus.

Sons and Heirs

27 For those of you who were baptized into Christ have been clothed with Christ.(AG) 28 There is no Jew or Greek, slave or free,(AH) male and female;(AI) since you are all one(AJ) in Christ Jesus. 29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s seed, heirs(AK) according to the promise.(AL)


  1. 3:1 Other mss add not to obey the truth
  2. 3:1 Other mss add among you
  3. 3:2 Lit hearing with faith, also in v. 5
  4. 3:4 Or suffer
  5. 3:6 Gn 15:6
  6. 3:8 Or Gentiles
  7. 3:8 Gn 12:3; 18:18
  8. 3:9 Or with believing Abraham
  9. 3:10 Dt 27:26
  10. 3:11 Hab 2:4
  11. 3:12 Lv 18:5
  12. 3:13 Dt 21:23
  13. 3:15 Or a human covenant that has been ratified
  14. 3:16 Gn 12:7; 13:15; 17:8; 24:7
  15. 3:17 Other mss add in Christ
  16. 3:19 Or because of transgressions
  17. 3:22 Lit under sin

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