Protection of Property

22 [a]“Whoever steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it must pay back(A) five head of cattle for the ox and four sheep for the sheep.

“If a thief is caught breaking in(B) at night and is struck a fatal blow, the defender is not guilty of bloodshed;(C) but if it happens after sunrise, the defender is guilty of bloodshed.

“Anyone who steals must certainly make restitution,(D) but if they have nothing, they must be sold(E) to pay for their theft. If the stolen animal is found alive in their possession(F)—whether ox or donkey or sheep—they must pay back double.(G)

“If anyone grazes their livestock in a field or vineyard and lets them stray and they graze in someone else’s field, the offender must make restitution(H) from the best of their own field or vineyard.

“If a fire breaks out and spreads into thornbushes so that it burns shocks(I) of grain or standing grain or the whole field, the one who started the fire must make restitution.(J)

“If anyone gives a neighbor silver or goods for safekeeping(K) and they are stolen from the neighbor’s house, the thief, if caught, must pay back double.(L) But if the thief is not found, the owner of the house must appear before the judges,(M) and they must[b] determine whether the owner of the house has laid hands on the other person’s property. In all cases of illegal possession of an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or any other lost property about which somebody says, ‘This is mine,’ both parties are to bring their cases before the judges.[c](N) The one whom the judges declare[d] guilty must pay back double to the other.

10 “If anyone gives a donkey, an ox, a sheep or any other animal to their neighbor for safekeeping(O) and it dies or is injured or is taken away while no one is looking, 11 the issue between them will be settled by the taking of an oath(P) before the Lord that the neighbor did not lay hands on the other person’s property. The owner is to accept this, and no restitution is required. 12 But if the animal was stolen from the neighbor, restitution(Q) must be made to the owner. 13 If it was torn to pieces by a wild animal, the neighbor shall bring in the remains as evidence and shall not be required to pay for the torn animal.(R)

14 “If anyone borrows an animal from their neighbor and it is injured or dies while the owner is not present, they must make restitution.(S) 15 But if the owner is with the animal, the borrower will not have to pay. If the animal was hired, the money paid for the hire covers the loss.(T)

Social Responsibility

16 “If a man seduces a virgin(U) who is not pledged to be married and sleeps with her, he must pay the bride-price,(V) and she shall be his wife. 17 If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he must still pay the bride-price for virgins.

18 “Do not allow a sorceress(W) to live.

19 “Anyone who has sexual relations with an animal(X) is to be put to death.

20 “Whoever sacrifices to any god(Y) other than the Lord must be destroyed.[e](Z)

21 “Do not mistreat or oppress a foreigner,(AA) for you were foreigners(AB) in Egypt.

22 “Do not take advantage of the widow or the fatherless.(AC) 23 If you do and they cry out(AD) to me, I will certainly hear their cry.(AE) 24 My anger will be aroused, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives will become widows and your children fatherless.(AF)

25 “If you lend money to one of my people among you who is needy, do not treat it like a business deal; charge no interest.(AG) 26 If you take your neighbor’s cloak as a pledge,(AH) return it by sunset, 27 because that cloak is the only covering your neighbor has. What else can they sleep in?(AI) When they cry out to me, I will hear, for I am compassionate.(AJ)

28 “Do not blaspheme God[f](AK) or curse(AL) the ruler of your people.(AM)

29 “Do not hold back offerings(AN) from your granaries or your vats.[g]

“You must give me the firstborn of your sons.(AO) 30 Do the same with your cattle and your sheep.(AP) Let them stay with their mothers for seven days, but give them to me on the eighth day.(AQ)

31 “You are to be my holy people.(AR) So do not eat the meat of an animal torn by wild beasts;(AS) throw it to the dogs.

Laws of Justice and Mercy

23 “Do not spread false reports.(AT) Do not help a guilty person by being a malicious witness.(AU)

“Do not follow the crowd in doing wrong. When you give testimony in a lawsuit, do not pervert justice(AV) by siding with the crowd,(AW) and do not show favoritism(AX) to a poor person in a lawsuit.

“If you come across your enemy’s(AY) ox or donkey wandering off, be sure to return it.(AZ) If you see the donkey(BA) of someone who hates you fallen down under its load, do not leave it there; be sure you help them with it.

“Do not deny justice(BB) to your poor people in their lawsuits. Have nothing to do with a false charge(BC) and do not put an innocent(BD) or honest person to death,(BE) for I will not acquit the guilty.(BF)

“Do not accept a bribe,(BG) for a bribe blinds those who see and twists the words of the innocent.

“Do not oppress a foreigner;(BH) you yourselves know how it feels to be foreigners, because you were foreigners in Egypt.

Sabbath Laws

10 “For six years you are to sow your fields and harvest the crops, 11 but during the seventh year let the land lie unplowed and unused.(BI) Then the poor among your people may get food from it, and the wild animals may eat what is left. Do the same with your vineyard and your olive grove.

12 “Six days do your work,(BJ) but on the seventh day do not work, so that your ox and your donkey may rest, and so that the slave born in your household and the foreigner living among you may be refreshed.(BK)

13 “Be careful(BL) to do everything I have said to you. Do not invoke the names of other gods;(BM) do not let them be heard on your lips.(BN)

The Three Annual Festivals

14 “Three times(BO) a year you are to celebrate a festival to me.

15 “Celebrate the Festival of Unleavened Bread;(BP) for seven days eat bread made without yeast, as I commanded you. Do this at the appointed time in the month of Aviv,(BQ) for in that month you came out of Egypt.

“No one is to appear before me empty-handed.(BR)

16 “Celebrate the Festival of Harvest(BS) with the firstfruits(BT) of the crops you sow in your field.

“Celebrate the Festival of Ingathering(BU) at the end of the year, when you gather in your crops from the field.(BV)

17 “Three times(BW) a year all the men are to appear before the Sovereign Lord.

18 “Do not offer the blood of a sacrifice to me along with anything containing yeast.(BX)

“The fat of my festival offerings must not be kept until morning.(BY)

19 “Bring the best of the firstfruits(BZ) of your soil to the house of the Lord your God.

“Do not cook a young goat in its mother’s milk.(CA)

God’s Angel to Prepare the Way

20 “See, I am sending an angel(CB) ahead of you to guard you along the way and to bring you to the place I have prepared.(CC) 21 Pay attention to him and listen(CD) to what he says. Do not rebel against him; he will not forgive(CE) your rebellion,(CF) since my Name(CG) is in him. 22 If you listen carefully to what he says and do(CH) all that I say, I will be an enemy(CI) to your enemies and will oppose those who oppose you. 23 My angel will go ahead of you and bring you into the land of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites and Jebusites,(CJ) and I will wipe them out. 24 Do not bow down before their gods or worship(CK) them or follow their practices.(CL) You must demolish(CM) them and break their sacred stones(CN) to pieces. 25 Worship the Lord your God,(CO) and his blessing(CP) will be on your food and water. I will take away sickness(CQ) from among you, 26 and none will miscarry or be barren(CR) in your land. I will give you a full life span.(CS)

27 “I will send my terror(CT) ahead of you and throw into confusion(CU) every nation you encounter. I will make all your enemies turn their backs and run.(CV) 28 I will send the hornet(CW) ahead of you to drive the Hivites, Canaanites and Hittites(CX) out of your way. 29 But I will not drive them out in a single year, because the land would become desolate and the wild animals(CY) too numerous for you. 30 Little by little I will drive them out before you, until you have increased enough to take possession(CZ) of the land.

31 “I will establish your borders from the Red Sea[h] to the Mediterranean Sea,[i] and from the desert to the Euphrates River.(DA) I will give into your hands the people who live in the land, and you will drive them out(DB) before you. 32 Do not make a covenant(DC) with them or with their gods. 33 Do not let them live in your land or they will cause you to sin against me, because the worship of their gods will certainly be a snare(DD) to you.”

Footnotes

  1. Exodus 22:1 In Hebrew texts 22:1 is numbered 21:37, and 22:2-31 is numbered 22:1-30.
  2. Exodus 22:8 Or before God, and he will
  3. Exodus 22:9 Or before God
  4. Exodus 22:9 Or whom God declares
  5. Exodus 22:20 The Hebrew term refers to the irrevocable giving over of things or persons to the Lord, often by totally destroying them.
  6. Exodus 22:28 Or Do not revile the judges
  7. Exodus 22:29 The meaning of the Hebrew for this phrase is uncertain.
  8. Exodus 23:31 Or the Sea of Reeds
  9. Exodus 23:31 Hebrew to the Sea of the Philistines

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