The Passover Lamb

12 Now the Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of [a]Egypt, (A)This month shall be the beginning of months for you; it is to be the first month of the year for you. Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying, ‘On the tenth of this month they are, each one, to take a [b]lamb for themselves, according to the fathers’ households, a [c]lamb for [d]each household. Now if the household is too small for a [e]lamb, then he and his neighbor nearest to his house are to take one according to the [f]number of persons in them; in proportion to [g]what each one should eat, you are to [h]divide the lamb. Your [i]lamb shall be (B)an unblemished male a year old; you may take it from the sheep or from the goats. [j]You shall keep it until the (C)fourteenth day of the same month, then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel is to slaughter it [k](D)at twilight. (E)Moreover, they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel [l]of the houses in which they eat it. They shall eat the flesh (F)that same night, (G)roasted with fire, and they shall eat it with (H)unleavened bread [m](I)and bitter herbs. Do not eat any of it raw or boiled at all with water, but rather (J)roasted with fire, both its head and its legs along with (K)its entrails. 10 (L)And you shall not leave any of it over until morning, but whatever is left of it until morning, you shall completely burn with fire. 11 Now you shall eat it in this way: with your garment [n]belted around your waist, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in a hurry—it is (M)the Lords Passover. 12 For (N)I will go through the land of Egypt on that night, and fatally strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the human firstborn to animals; and (O)against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments—(P)I am the Lord. 13 (Q)The blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you [o]live; and when I see the blood I will pass over you, and no plague will come upon you [p]to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.

Feast of Unleavened Bread

14 ‘Now (R)this day shall be (S)a memorial to you, and you shall celebrate it as a feast to the Lord; throughout your generations you are to celebrate it as [q](T)a permanent ordinance. 15 For (U)seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, but on the first day you shall remove dough with yeast from your houses; for whoever eats anything with yeast from the first day until the seventh day, (V)that [r]person shall be cut off from Israel. 16 And (W)on the first day you shall have a holy assembly, and another holy assembly on the seventh day; no work at all shall be done on them, except for what must be eaten by every person—that alone may be [s]prepared by you. 17 You shall also keep (X)the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this (Y)very day I brought your [t]multitudes out of the land of Egypt; therefore you shall keep this day throughout your generations as (Z)a [u]permanent ordinance. 18 (AA)In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at evening. 19 For (AB)seven days there shall be no dough with yeast found in your houses; for whoever eats anything with yeast, that [v](AC)person shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger or a native of the land. 20 You shall not eat anything with yeast; in all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened bread.’”

21 Then (AD)Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go and (AE)take for yourselves [w]lambs according to your families, and slaughter (AF)the Passover lamb. 22 And (AG)you shall take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood which is in the basin, and [x]apply some of the blood that is in the basin to the lintel and the two doorposts; and none of you shall go outside the door of his house until morning.

A Memorial of Redemption

23 For (AH)the Lord will pass through to strike the Egyptians; but when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the Lord will pass over the door and will (AI)not allow the (AJ)destroyer to come in to your houses to strike you. 24 And (AK)you shall keep this event as an ordinance for you and your children forever. 25 When you enter the land which the Lord will give you, as He has [y]promised, you shall keep this [z]rite. 26 (AL)And when your children say to you, ‘[aa]What does this rite mean to you?’ 27 then you shall say, ‘It is a Passover sacrifice to (AM)the Lord because He passed over the houses of the sons of Israel in Egypt when He struck the Egyptians, but [ab]spared our homes.’” (AN)And the people bowed low and worshiped.

28 Then the sons of Israel went and did so; just as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.

29 Now it came about at (AO)midnight that (AP)the Lord struck all (AQ)the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of (AR)cattle. 30 And Pharaoh got up in the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians, and there was (AS)a great cry in Egypt, for there was no home where there was not someone dead. 31 Then (AT)he called for Moses and Aaron at night and said, “Rise up, (AU)get out from among my people, both you and the sons of Israel; and go, [ac]worship the Lord, as you have said. 32 Take (AV)both your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and go, and bless me also.”

Exodus of Israel

33 (AW)The Egyptians urged the people, to send them out of the land in a hurry, for they said, “We will all be dead.” 34 So the people took (AX)their dough before it was leavened, with their kneading bowls bound up in the clothes on their shoulders.

35 (AY)Now the sons of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, for they had requested from the Egyptians articles of silver and articles of gold, and clothing; 36 and the Lord had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have their request. Therefore they (AZ)plundered the Egyptians.

37 Now the (BA)sons of Israel journeyed from (BB)Rameses to Succoth, about (BC)six hundred thousand men on foot, aside from children. 38 A (BD)mixed multitude also went up with them, [ad]along with flocks and herds, a (BE)very large number of livestock. 39 And they baked the dough which they had brought out of Egypt into cakes of unleavened bread. For it had no yeast, since they were (BF)driven out of Egypt and could not delay, nor had they [ae]prepared any provisions for themselves.

40 Now the time [af]that the sons of Israel had lived in Egypt was (BG)430 years. 41 And at the end of 430 years, on (BH)this very day, (BI)all the [ag]multitudes of the Lord departed from the land of Egypt.

Ordinance of the Passover

42 (BJ)It is a night [ah]to be observed for the Lord, for having brought them out of the land of Egypt; this night is for the Lord, [ai]to be observed by all the sons of Israel throughout their generations.

43 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of (BK)the Passover: no [aj](BL)foreigner is to eat it; 44 but as for every (BM)slave [ak]that someone has purchased with money, after you have circumcised him, then he may eat it. 45 (BN)A stranger or a hired worker shall not eat it. 46 It is to be eaten in a single house; you are not to bring any of the meat outside of the house, (BO)nor are you to break any bone of it. 47 (BP)All the congregation of Israel are to [al]celebrate this. 48 But (BQ)if a stranger resides with you and [am]celebrates the Passover to the Lord, all of his males are to be circumcised, and then he shall come near to [an]celebrate it; and he shall be like a native of the land. But no uncircumcised male may eat it. 49 [ao](BR)The same law shall [ap]apply to the native as to the stranger who resides among you.”

50 Then all the sons of Israel did so; they did just as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron. 51 And on that very day (BS)the Lord brought the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt (BT)according to their [aq]multitudes.


  1. Exodus 12:1 Lit Egypt, saying
  2. Exodus 12:3 Or kid
  3. Exodus 12:3 Or kid
  4. Exodus 12:3 Lit the
  5. Exodus 12:4 Or kid
  6. Exodus 12:4 Or amount
  7. Exodus 12:4 Lit each man’s eating
  8. Exodus 12:4 Lit compute for
  9. Exodus 12:5 Or kid
  10. Exodus 12:6 Lit It shall be to you for a guarding
  11. Exodus 12:6 Lit between the two evenings
  12. Exodus 12:7 Lit upon
  13. Exodus 12:8 Lit in addition to
  14. Exodus 12:11 I.e., for travel
  15. Exodus 12:13 Lit are
  16. Exodus 12:13 Lit for destruction
  17. Exodus 12:14 Or an eternal
  18. Exodus 12:15 Lit soul
  19. Exodus 12:16 Lit done
  20. Exodus 12:17 Lit armies
  21. Exodus 12:17 Or eternal
  22. Exodus 12:19 Lit soul
  23. Exodus 12:21 Lit sheep
  24. Exodus 12:22 Lit cause to touch
  25. Exodus 12:25 Lit spoken
  26. Exodus 12:25 Lit service
  27. Exodus 12:26 Lit What is this service to you?
  28. Exodus 12:27 Lit delivered
  29. Exodus 12:31 Or serve
  30. Exodus 12:38 Lit and
  31. Exodus 12:39 Lit made
  32. Exodus 12:40 Or of the sons of Israel who lived
  33. Exodus 12:41 Lit armies
  34. Exodus 12:42 Or of vigil
  35. Exodus 12:42 Or of vigil
  36. Exodus 12:43 Lit son of a stranger
  37. Exodus 12:44 Lit of a man, an acquisition of money
  38. Exodus 12:47 Lit perform
  39. Exodus 12:48 Lit performs
  40. Exodus 12:48 Lit perform
  41. Exodus 12:49 Lit One law
  42. Exodus 12:49 Lit be
  43. Exodus 12:51 I.e., multitudes in battle formation

The Passover and the Festival of Unleavened Bread(A)

12 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt, “This month is to be for you the first month,(B) the first month of your year. Tell the whole community of Israel that on the tenth day of this month each man is to take a lamb[a](C) for his family, one for each household.(D) If any household is too small for a whole lamb, they must share one with their nearest neighbor, having taken into account the number of people there are. You are to determine the amount of lamb needed in accordance with what each person will eat. The animals you choose must be year-old males without defect,(E) and you may take them from the sheep or the goats. Take care of them until the fourteenth day of the month,(F) when all the members of the community of Israel must slaughter them at twilight.(G) Then they are to take some of the blood(H) and put it on the sides and tops of the doorframes of the houses where they eat the lambs. That same night(I) they are to eat the meat roasted(J) over the fire, along with bitter herbs,(K) and bread made without yeast.(L) Do not eat the meat raw or boiled in water, but roast it over a fire—with the head, legs and internal organs.(M) 10 Do not leave any of it till morning;(N) if some is left till morning, you must burn it. 11 This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand. Eat it in haste;(O) it is the Lord’s Passover.(P)

12 “On that same night I will pass through(Q) Egypt and strike down(R) every firstborn(S) of both people and animals, and I will bring judgment on all the gods(T) of Egypt. I am the Lord.(U) 13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, and when I see the blood, I will pass over(V) you. No destructive plague will touch you when I strike Egypt.(W)

14 “This is a day you are to commemorate;(X) for the generations to come you shall celebrate it as a festival to the Lord—a lasting ordinance.(Y) 15 For seven days you are to eat bread made without yeast.(Z) On the first day remove the yeast from your houses, for whoever eats anything with yeast in it from the first day through the seventh must be cut off(AA) from Israel. 16 On the first day hold a sacred assembly, and another one on the seventh day. Do no work(AB) at all on these days, except to prepare food for everyone to eat; that is all you may do.

17 “Celebrate the Festival of Unleavened Bread,(AC) because it was on this very day that I brought your divisions out of Egypt.(AD) Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come.(AE) 18 In the first month(AF) you are to eat bread made without yeast, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day. 19 For seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses. And anyone, whether foreigner(AG) or native-born, who eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off(AH) from the community of Israel. 20 Eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live,(AI) you must eat unleavened bread.”(AJ)

21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go at once and select the animals for your families and slaughter the Passover(AK) lamb. 22 Take a bunch of hyssop,(AL) dip it into the blood in the basin and put some of the blood(AM) on the top and on both sides of the doorframe. None of you shall go out of the door of your house until morning. 23 When the Lord goes through the land to strike(AN) down the Egyptians, he will see the blood(AO) on the top and sides of the doorframe and will pass over(AP) that doorway, and he will not permit the destroyer(AQ) to enter your houses and strike you down.

24 “Obey these instructions as a lasting ordinance(AR) for you and your descendants. 25 When you enter the land(AS) that the Lord will give you as he promised, observe this ceremony. 26 And when your children(AT) ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 27 then tell them, ‘It is the Passover(AU) sacrifice to the Lord, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and spared our homes when he struck down the Egyptians.’”(AV) Then the people bowed down and worshiped.(AW) 28 The Israelites did just what the Lord commanded(AX) Moses and Aaron.

29 At midnight(AY) the Lord(AZ) struck down all the firstborn(BA) in Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sat on the throne, to the firstborn of the prisoner, who was in the dungeon, and the firstborn of all the livestock(BB) as well. 30 Pharaoh and all his officials and all the Egyptians got up during the night, and there was loud wailing(BC) in Egypt, for there was not a house without someone dead.

The Exodus

31 During the night Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Up! Leave my people, you and the Israelites! Go, worship(BD) the Lord as you have requested. 32 Take your flocks and herds,(BE) as you have said, and go. And also bless(BF) me.”

33 The Egyptians urged the people to hurry(BG) and leave(BH) the country. “For otherwise,” they said, “we will all die!”(BI) 34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, and carried it on their shoulders in kneading troughs(BJ) wrapped in clothing. 35 The Israelites did as Moses instructed and asked the Egyptians for articles of silver and gold(BK) and for clothing.(BL) 36 The Lord had made the Egyptians favorably disposed(BM) toward the people, and they gave them what they asked for; so they plundered(BN) the Egyptians.

37 The Israelites journeyed from Rameses(BO) to Sukkoth.(BP) There were about six hundred thousand men(BQ) on foot, besides women and children. 38 Many other people(BR) went up with them, and also large droves of livestock, both flocks and herds. 39 With the dough the Israelites had brought from Egypt, they baked loaves of unleavened bread. The dough was without yeast because they had been driven out(BS) of Egypt and did not have time to prepare food for themselves.

40 Now the length of time the Israelite people lived in Egypt[b] was 430 years.(BT) 41 At the end of the 430 years, to the very day, all the Lord’s divisions(BU) left Egypt.(BV) 42 Because the Lord kept vigil that night to bring them out of Egypt, on this night all the Israelites are to keep vigil to honor the Lord for the generations to come.(BW)

Passover Restrictions

43 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “These are the regulations for the Passover meal:(BX)

“No foreigner(BY) may eat it. 44 Any slave you have bought may eat it after you have circumcised(BZ) him, 45 but a temporary resident or a hired worker(CA) may not eat it.

46 “It must be eaten inside the house; take none of the meat outside the house. Do not break any of the bones.(CB) 47 The whole community of Israel must celebrate it.

48 “A foreigner residing among you who wants to celebrate the Lord’s Passover must have all the males in his household circumcised; then he may take part like one born in the land.(CC) No uncircumcised(CD) male may eat it. 49 The same law applies both to the native-born and to the foreigner(CE) residing among you.”

50 All the Israelites did just what the Lord had commanded(CF) Moses and Aaron. 51 And on that very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of Egypt(CG) by their divisions.(CH)


  1. Exodus 12:3 The Hebrew word can mean lamb or kid; also in verse 4.
  2. Exodus 12:40 Masoretic Text; Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint Egypt and Canaan