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22 “You must observe[a] the Feast of Weeks—the firstfruits of the harvest of wheat—and the Feast of Ingathering at the end[b] of the year. 23 At three times[c] in the year all your men[d] must appear before the Sovereign Lord,[e] the God of Israel. 24 For I will drive out[f] the nations before you and enlarge your borders; no one will covet[g] your land when you go up[h] to appear before the Lord your God three times[i] in the year.

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  1. Exodus 34:22 tn The imperfect tense means “you will do”; it is followed by the preposition with a suffix to express the ethical dative to stress the subject.
  2. Exodus 34:22 tn The expression is “the turn of the year,” which is parallel to “the going out of the year,” and means the end of the agricultural season.
  3. Exodus 34:23 tn “Three times” is an adverbial accusative.
  4. Exodus 34:23 tn Heb “all your males.”
  5. Exodus 34:23 tn Here the divine name reads in Hebrew הָאָדֹן יְהוָה (haʾadon yehvah), which if rendered according to the traditional scheme of “Lord” for “Yahweh” would result in “Lord Lord.” A number of English versions render this phrase “Lord God.” sn The title “Lord” translated as Sovereign is included here before the divine name (translated “Lord” here), perhaps to form a contrast with Baal (which means “lord” as well) and to show the sovereignty of Yahweh. But the distinct designation “the God of Israel” is certainly the point of the renewed covenant relationship.
  6. Exodus 34:24 tn The verb is a Hiphil imperfect of יָרַשׁ (yarash), which means “to possess.” In the causative stem it can mean “dispossess” or “drive out.”
  7. Exodus 34:24 sn The verb “covet” means more than desire; it means that some action will be taken to try to acquire the land that is being coveted. It is one thing to envy someone for their land; it is another to be consumed by the desire that stops at nothing to get it (it, not something like it).
  8. Exodus 34:24 tn The construction uses the infinitive construct with a preposition and a suffixed subject to form the temporal clause.
  9. Exodus 34:24 tn The expression “three times” is an adverbial accusative of time.