The Priestly Garments

28 “Have Aaron(A) your brother brought to you from among the Israelites, along with his sons Nadab and Abihu,(B) Eleazar and Ithamar,(C) so they may serve me as priests.(D) Make sacred garments(E) for your brother Aaron to give him dignity and honor.(F) Tell all the skilled workers(G) to whom I have given wisdom(H) in such matters that they are to make garments for Aaron, for his consecration, so he may serve me as priest. These are the garments they are to make: a breastpiece,(I) an ephod,(J) a robe,(K) a woven tunic,(L) a turban(M) and a sash. They are to make these sacred garments for your brother Aaron and his sons, so they may serve me as priests. Have them use gold, and blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and fine linen.(N)

The Ephod(O)

“Make the ephod(P) of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen—the work of skilled hands. It is to have two shoulder pieces attached to two of its corners, so it can be fastened. Its skillfully woven waistband(Q) is to be like it—of one piece with the ephod and made with gold, and with blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and with finely twisted linen.

“Take two onyx stones and engrave(R) on them the names of the sons of Israel 10 in the order of their birth—six names on one stone and the remaining six on the other. 11 Engrave the names of the sons of Israel on the two stones the way a gem cutter engraves a seal. Then mount the stones in gold filigree settings 12 and fasten them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod as memorial stones for the sons of Israel. Aaron is to bear the names on his shoulders(S) as a memorial(T) before the Lord. 13 Make gold filigree settings 14 and two braided chains of pure gold, like a rope, and attach the chains to the settings.

The Breastpiece(U)

15 “Fashion a breastpiece(V) for making decisions—the work of skilled hands. Make it like the ephod: of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen. 16 It is to be square—a span[a] long and a span wide—and folded double. 17 Then mount four rows of precious stones(W) on it. The first row shall be carnelian, chrysolite(X) and beryl; 18 the second row shall be turquoise, lapis lazuli and emerald; 19 the third row shall be jacinth, agate and amethyst; 20 the fourth row shall be topaz, onyx and jasper.[b] Mount them in gold filigree settings. 21 There are to be twelve stones, one for each of the names of the sons of Israel,(Y) each engraved like a seal with the name of one of the twelve tribes.(Z)

22 “For the breastpiece make braided chains of pure gold, like a rope. 23 Make two gold rings for it and fasten them to two corners of the breastpiece. 24 Fasten the two gold chains to the rings at the corners of the breastpiece, 25 and the other ends of the chains to the two settings, attaching them to the shoulder pieces of the ephod at the front. 26 Make two gold rings and attach them to the other two corners of the breastpiece on the inside edge next to the ephod. 27 Make two more gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the shoulder pieces on the front of the ephod, close to the seam just above the waistband of the ephod. 28 The rings of the breastpiece are to be tied to the rings of the ephod with blue cord, connecting it to the waistband, so that the breastpiece will not swing out from the ephod.

29 “Whenever Aaron enters the Holy Place,(AA) he will bear the names of the sons of Israel over his heart on the breastpiece of decision as a continuing memorial before the Lord. 30 Also put the Urim and the Thummim(AB) in the breastpiece, so they may be over Aaron’s heart whenever he enters the presence of the Lord. Thus Aaron will always bear the means of making decisions for the Israelites over his heart before the Lord.

Other Priestly Garments(AC)

31 “Make the robe of the ephod entirely of blue cloth, 32 with an opening for the head in its center. There shall be a woven edge like a collar[c] around this opening, so that it will not tear. 33 Make pomegranates(AD) of blue, purple and scarlet yarn around the hem of the robe, with gold bells between them. 34 The gold bells and the pomegranates are to alternate around the hem of the robe. 35 Aaron must wear it when he ministers. The sound of the bells will be heard when he enters the Holy Place before the Lord and when he comes out, so that he will not die.

36 “Make a plate(AE) of pure gold and engrave on it as on a seal: holy to the Lord.(AF) 37 Fasten a blue cord to it to attach it to the turban; it is to be on the front of the turban. 38 It will be on Aaron’s forehead, and he will bear the guilt(AG) involved in the sacred gifts the Israelites consecrate, whatever their gifts may be. It will be on Aaron’s forehead continually so that they will be acceptable(AH) to the Lord.

39 “Weave the tunic(AI) of fine linen and make the turban(AJ) of fine linen. The sash is to be the work of an embroiderer. 40 Make tunics, sashes and caps for Aaron’s sons(AK) to give them dignity and honor.(AL) 41 After you put these clothes(AM) on your brother Aaron and his sons, anoint(AN) and ordain them. Consecrate them so they may serve me as priests.(AO)

42 “Make linen undergarments(AP) as a covering for the body, reaching from the waist to the thigh. 43 Aaron and his sons must wear them whenever they enter the tent of meeting(AQ) or approach the altar to minister in the Holy Place,(AR) so that they will not incur guilt and die.(AS)

“This is to be a lasting ordinance(AT) for Aaron and his descendants.

Consecration of the Priests(AU)

29 “This is what you are to do to consecrate(AV) them, so they may serve me as priests: Take a young bull and two rams without defect.(AW) And from the finest wheat flour make round loaves without yeast, thick loaves without yeast and with olive oil mixed in, and thin loaves without yeast and brushed with olive oil.(AX) Put them in a basket and present them along with the bull and the two rams.(AY) Then bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance to the tent of meeting and wash them with water.(AZ) Take the garments(BA) and dress Aaron with the tunic, the robe of the ephod, the ephod itself and the breastpiece. Fasten the ephod on him by its skillfully woven waistband.(BB) Put the turban(BC) on his head and attach the sacred emblem(BD) to the turban. Take the anointing oil(BE) and anoint him by pouring it on his head. Bring his sons and dress them in tunics(BF) and fasten caps on them. Then tie sashes on Aaron and his sons.[d](BG) The priesthood is theirs by a lasting ordinance.(BH)

“Then you shall ordain Aaron and his sons.

10 “Bring the bull to the front of the tent of meeting, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on its head.(BI) 11 Slaughter it in the Lord’s presence(BJ) at the entrance to the tent of meeting. 12 Take some of the bull’s blood and put it on the horns(BK) of the altar with your finger, and pour out the rest of it at the base of the altar.(BL) 13 Then take all the fat(BM) on the internal organs,(BN) the long lobe of the liver, and both kidneys with the fat on them, and burn them on the altar. 14 But burn the bull’s flesh and its hide and its intestines(BO) outside the camp.(BP) It is a sin offering.[e]

15 “Take one of the rams,(BQ) and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on its head.(BR) 16 Slaughter it and take the blood and splash it against the sides of the altar. 17 Cut the ram into pieces and wash(BS) the internal organs and the legs, putting them with the head and the other pieces. 18 Then burn the entire ram on the altar. It is a burnt offering to the Lord, a pleasing aroma,(BT) a food offering presented to the Lord.

19 “Take the other ram,(BU) and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on its head.(BV) 20 Slaughter it, take some of its blood and put it on the lobes of the right ears of Aaron and his sons, on the thumbs of their right hands, and on the big toes of their right feet.(BW) Then splash blood against the sides of the altar.(BX) 21 And take some blood(BY) from the altar and some of the anointing oil(BZ) and sprinkle it on Aaron and his garments and on his sons and their garments. Then he and his sons and their garments will be consecrated.(CA)

22 “Take from this ram the fat,(CB) the fat tail, the fat on the internal organs, the long lobe of the liver, both kidneys with the fat on them, and the right thigh. (This is the ram for the ordination.) 23 From the basket of bread made without yeast, which is before the Lord, take one round loaf, one thick loaf with olive oil mixed in, and one thin loaf. 24 Put all these in the hands of Aaron and his sons and have them wave them before the Lord as a wave offering.(CC) 25 Then take them from their hands and burn them on the altar along with the burnt offering for a pleasing aroma to the Lord, a food offering presented to the Lord.(CD) 26 After you take the breast of the ram for Aaron’s ordination, wave it before the Lord as a wave offering, and it will be your share.(CE)

27 “Consecrate those parts of the ordination ram that belong to Aaron and his sons:(CF) the breast that was waved and the thigh that was presented. 28 This is always to be the perpetual share from the Israelites for Aaron and his sons. It is the contribution the Israelites are to make to the Lord from their fellowship offerings.(CG)

29 “Aaron’s sacred garments(CH) will belong to his descendants so that they can be anointed and ordained in them.(CI) 30 The son(CJ) who succeeds him as priest and comes to the tent of meeting to minister in the Holy Place is to wear them seven days.

31 “Take the ram(CK) for the ordination and cook the meat in a sacred place.(CL) 32 At the entrance to the tent of meeting, Aaron and his sons are to eat the meat of the ram and the bread(CM) that is in the basket. 33 They are to eat these offerings by which atonement was made for their ordination and consecration. But no one else may eat(CN) them, because they are sacred. 34 And if any of the meat of the ordination ram or any bread is left over till morning,(CO) burn it up. It must not be eaten, because it is sacred.

35 “Do for Aaron and his sons everything I have commanded you, taking seven days to ordain them. 36 Sacrifice a bull each day(CP) as a sin offering to make atonement(CQ). Purify the altar by making atonement for it, and anoint it to consecrate(CR) it. 37 For seven days make atonement for the altar and consecrate it. Then the altar will be most holy, and whatever touches it will be holy.(CS)

38 “This is what you are to offer on the altar regularly each day:(CT) two lambs a year old. 39 Offer one in the morning and the other at twilight.(CU) 40 With the first lamb offer a tenth of an ephah[f] of the finest flour mixed with a quarter of a hin[g] of oil(CV) from pressed olives, and a quarter of a hin of wine as a drink offering.(CW) 41 Sacrifice the other lamb at twilight(CX) with the same grain offering(CY) and its drink offering as in the morning—a pleasing aroma, a food offering presented to the Lord.

42 “For the generations to come(CZ) this burnt offering is to be made regularly(DA) at the entrance to the tent of meeting,(DB) before the Lord. There I will meet you and speak to you;(DC) 43 there also I will meet with the Israelites, and the place will be consecrated by my glory.(DD)

44 “So I will consecrate the tent of meeting and the altar and will consecrate Aaron and his sons to serve me as priests.(DE) 45 Then I will dwell(DF) among the Israelites and be their God.(DG) 46 They will know that I am the Lord their God, who brought them out of Egypt(DH) so that I might dwell among them. I am the Lord their God.(DI)

The Altar of Incense(DJ)

30 “Make an altar(DK) of acacia wood for burning incense.(DL) It is to be square, a cubit long and a cubit wide, and two cubits high[h]—its horns(DM) of one piece with it. Overlay the top and all the sides and the horns with pure gold, and make a gold molding around it.(DN) Make two gold rings(DO) for the altar below the molding—two on each of the opposite sides—to hold the poles used to carry it. Make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold.(DP) Put the altar in front of the curtain that shields the ark of the covenant law—before the atonement cover(DQ) that is over the tablets of the covenant law—where I will meet with you.

“Aaron must burn fragrant incense(DR) on the altar every morning when he tends the lamps. He must burn incense again when he lights the lamps at twilight so incense will burn regularly before the Lord for the generations to come.(DS) Do not offer on this altar any other incense(DT) or any burnt offering or grain offering, and do not pour a drink offering on it. 10 Once a year(DU) Aaron shall make atonement(DV) on its horns. This annual atonement must be made with the blood of the atoning sin offering[i](DW) for the generations to come.(DX) It is most holy to the Lord.”

Atonement Money

11 Then the Lord said to Moses, 12 “When you take a census(DY) of the Israelites to count them, each one must pay the Lord a ransom(DZ) for his life at the time he is counted. Then no plague(EA) will come on them when you number them. 13 Each one who crosses over to those already counted is to give a half shekel,[j] according to the sanctuary shekel,(EB) which weighs twenty gerahs. This half shekel is an offering to the Lord. 14 All who cross over, those twenty years old or more,(EC) are to give an offering to the Lord. 15 The rich are not to give more than a half shekel and the poor are not to give less(ED) when you make the offering to the Lord to atone for your lives. 16 Receive the atonement(EE) money from the Israelites and use it for the service of the tent of meeting.(EF) It will be a memorial(EG) for the Israelites before the Lord, making atonement for your lives.”

Basin for Washing

17 Then the Lord said to Moses, 18 “Make a bronze basin,(EH) with its bronze stand, for washing. Place it between the tent of meeting and the altar, and put water in it. 19 Aaron and his sons are to wash their hands and feet(EI) with water(EJ) from it. 20 Whenever they enter the tent of meeting, they shall wash with water so that they will not die.(EK) Also, when they approach the altar to minister by presenting a food offering to the Lord, 21 they shall wash their hands and feet so that they will not die. This is to be a lasting ordinance(EL) for Aaron and his descendants for the generations to come.”(EM)

Anointing Oil

22 Then the Lord said to Moses, 23 “Take the following fine spices:(EN) 500 shekels[k] of liquid myrrh,(EO) half as much (that is, 250 shekels) of fragrant cinnamon,(EP) 250 shekels[l] of fragrant calamus,(EQ) 24 500 shekels(ER) of cassia(ES)—all according to the sanctuary shekel—and a hin[m] of olive oil. 25 Make these into a sacred anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer.(ET) It will be the sacred anointing oil.(EU) 26 Then use it to anoint(EV) the tent of meeting, the ark of the covenant law, 27 the table and all its articles, the lampstand and its accessories, the altar of incense, 28 the altar of burnt offering and all its utensils, and the basin with its stand. 29 You shall consecrate them(EW) so they will be most holy, and whatever touches them will be holy.(EX)

30 “Anoint Aaron and his sons and consecrate(EY) them so they may serve me as priests.(EZ) 31 Say to the Israelites, ‘This is to be my sacred anointing oil(FA) for the generations to come.(FB) 32 Do not pour it on anyone else’s body and do not make any other oil using the same formula. It is sacred, and you are to consider it sacred.(FC) 33 Whoever makes perfume like it and puts it on anyone other than a priest must be cut off(FD) from their people.’”


34 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Take fragrant spices(FE)—gum resin, onycha and galbanum—and pure frankincense, all in equal amounts, 35 and make a fragrant blend of incense,(FF) the work of a perfumer.(FG) It is to be salted and pure and sacred. 36 Grind some of it to powder and place it in front of the ark of the covenant law in the tent of meeting, where I will meet(FH) with you. It shall be most holy(FI) to you. 37 Do not make any incense with this formula for yourselves; consider it holy(FJ) to the Lord. 38 Whoever makes incense like it to enjoy its fragrance must be cut off(FK) from their people.”


  1. Exodus 28:16 That is, about 9 inches or about 23 centimeters
  2. Exodus 28:20 The precise identification of some of these precious stones is uncertain.
  3. Exodus 28:32 The meaning of the Hebrew for this word is uncertain.
  4. Exodus 29:9 Hebrew; Septuagint on them
  5. Exodus 29:14 Or purification offering; also in verse 36
  6. Exodus 29:40 That is, probably about 3 1/2 pounds or about 1.6 kilograms
  7. Exodus 29:40 That is, probably about 1 quart or about 1 liter
  8. Exodus 30:2 That is, about 1 1/2 feet long and wide and 3 feet high or about 45 centimeters long and wide and 90 centimeters high
  9. Exodus 30:10 Or purification offering
  10. Exodus 30:13 That is, about 1/5 ounce or about 5.8 grams; also in verse 15
  11. Exodus 30:23 That is, about 12 1/2 pounds or about 5.8 kilograms; also in verse 24
  12. Exodus 30:23 That is, about 6 1/4 pounds or about 2.9 kilograms
  13. Exodus 30:24 That is, probably about 1 gallon or about 3.8 liters

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