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31 I will establish your border from the Red Sea[a] all the way to the Mediterranean Sea,[b] and from the Wilderness[c] to the River.[d] So I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you will drive them out before you. 32 You shall not make a treaty[e] with them or with their gods. 33 They are not to dwell in your land, or they will make you sin against me, because if you serve their gods, this will surely be a trap for you.

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  1. Exodus 23:31 The Hebrew Yam Suf (Sea of Reeds) here refers to the Gulf of Aqaba, also called the Gulf of Elat.
  2. Exodus 23:31 Hebrew the Sea of the Philistines
  3. Exodus 23:31 The Hebrew word midbar, usually translated wilderness, refers to arid and semi-arid regions where agriculture is not possible but herding is. The word midbar is wider than the English word desert and narrower than the English word wilderness, which includes forested areas. Here it refers to the arid wilderness south of Israel.
  4. Exodus 23:31 That is, from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Mediterranean Sea, and from the Sinai Peninsula to the Euphrates River
  5. Exodus 23:32 Literally cut a treaty. See Genesis 15 to see why Israelites referred to cutting a treaty.