Jethro Visits Moses

18 Now Jethro,(A) the priest of Midian(B) and father-in-law of Moses, heard of everything God had done for Moses and for his people Israel, and how the Lord had brought Israel out of Egypt.(C)

After Moses had sent away his wife Zipporah,(D) his father-in-law Jethro received her and her two sons.(E) One son was named Gershom,[a] for Moses said, “I have become a foreigner in a foreign land”;(F) and the other was named Eliezer,[b](G) for he said, “My father’s God was my helper;(H) he saved me from the sword of Pharaoh.”

Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, together with Moses’ sons and wife, came to him in the wilderness, where he was camped near the mountain(I) of God. Jethro had sent word to him, “I, your father-in-law Jethro, am coming to you with your wife and her two sons.”

So Moses went out to meet his father-in-law and bowed down(J) and kissed(K) him. They greeted each other and then went into the tent. Moses told his father-in-law about everything the Lord had done to Pharaoh and the Egyptians for Israel’s sake and about all the hardships(L) they had met along the way and how the Lord had saved(M) them.

Jethro was delighted to hear about all the good things(N) the Lord had done for Israel in rescuing them from the hand of the Egyptians. 10 He said, “Praise be to the Lord,(O) who rescued you from the hand of the Egyptians and of Pharaoh, and who rescued the people from the hand of the Egyptians. 11 Now I know that the Lord is greater than all other gods,(P) for he did this to those who had treated Israel arrogantly.”(Q) 12 Then Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law,(R) brought a burnt offering(S) and other sacrifices(T) to God, and Aaron came with all the elders of Israel to eat a meal(U) with Moses’ father-in-law in the presence(V) of God.

13 The next day Moses took his seat to serve as judge for the people, and they stood around him from morning till evening. 14 When his father-in-law saw all that Moses was doing for the people, he said, “What is this you are doing for the people? Why do you alone sit as judge, while all these people stand around you from morning till evening?”

15 Moses answered him, “Because the people come to me to seek God’s will.(W) 16 Whenever they have a dispute,(X) it is brought to me, and I decide between the parties and inform them of God’s decrees and instructions.”(Y)

17 Moses’ father-in-law replied, “What you are doing is not good. 18 You and these people who come to you will only wear yourselves out. The work is too heavy for you; you cannot handle it alone.(Z) 19 Listen now to me and I will give you some advice, and may God be with you.(AA) You must be the people’s representative before God and bring their disputes(AB) to him. 20 Teach them his decrees and instructions,(AC) and show them the way they are to live(AD) and how they are to behave.(AE) 21 But select capable men(AF) from all the people—men who fear(AG) God, trustworthy men who hate dishonest gain(AH)—and appoint them as officials(AI) over thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens. 22 Have them serve as judges for the people at all times, but have them bring every difficult case(AJ) to you; the simple cases they can decide themselves. That will make your load lighter, because they will share(AK) it with you. 23 If you do this and God so commands, you will be able to stand the strain, and all these people will go home satisfied.”

24 Moses listened to his father-in-law and did everything he said. 25 He chose capable men from all Israel and made them leaders(AL) of the people, officials over thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens.(AM) 26 They served as judges(AN) for the people at all times. The difficult cases(AO) they brought to Moses, but the simple ones they decided themselves.(AP)

27 Then Moses sent his father-in-law on his way, and Jethro returned to his own country.(AQ)

At Mount Sinai

19 On the first day of the third month after the Israelites left Egypt(AR)—on that very day—they came to the Desert of Sinai.(AS) After they set out from Rephidim,(AT) they entered the Desert of Sinai, and Israel camped there in the desert in front of the mountain.(AU)

Then Moses went up to God,(AV) and the Lord called(AW) to him from the mountain and said, “This is what you are to say to the descendants of Jacob and what you are to tell the people of Israel: ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt,(AX) and how I carried you on eagles’ wings(AY) and brought you to myself.(AZ) Now if you obey me fully(BA) and keep my covenant,(BB) then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession.(BC) Although the whole earth(BD) is mine, you[c] will be for me a kingdom of priests(BE) and a holy nation.’(BF) These are the words you are to speak to the Israelites.”

So Moses went back and summoned the elders(BG) of the people and set before them all the words the Lord had commanded him to speak.(BH) The people all responded together, “We will do everything the Lord has said.”(BI) So Moses brought their answer back to the Lord.

The Lord said to Moses, “I am going to come to you in a dense cloud,(BJ) so that the people will hear me speaking(BK) with you and will always put their trust(BL) in you.” Then Moses told the Lord what the people had said.

10 And the Lord said to Moses, “Go to the people and consecrate(BM) them today and tomorrow. Have them wash their clothes(BN) 11 and be ready by the third day,(BO) because on that day the Lord will come down(BP) on Mount Sinai(BQ) in the sight of all the people. 12 Put limits(BR) for the people around the mountain and tell them, ‘Be careful that you do not approach the mountain or touch the foot of it. Whoever touches the mountain is to be put to death. 13 They are to be stoned(BS) or shot with arrows; not a hand is to be laid on them. No person or animal shall be permitted to live.’ Only when the ram’s horn(BT) sounds a long blast may they approach the mountain.”(BU)

14 After Moses had gone down the mountain to the people, he consecrated them, and they washed their clothes.(BV) 15 Then he said to the people, “Prepare yourselves for the third day. Abstain(BW) from sexual relations.”

16 On the morning of the third day there was thunder(BX) and lightning, with a thick cloud(BY) over the mountain, and a very loud trumpet blast.(BZ) Everyone in the camp trembled.(CA) 17 Then Moses led the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain.(CB) 18 Mount Sinai was covered with smoke,(CC) because the Lord descended on it in fire.(CD) The smoke billowed up from it like smoke from a furnace,(CE) and the whole mountain[d] trembled(CF) violently. 19 As the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke and the voice(CG) of God answered(CH) him.[e]

20 The Lord descended to the top of Mount Sinai(CI) and called Moses to the top of the mountain. So Moses went up 21 and the Lord said to him, “Go down and warn the people so they do not force their way through to see(CJ) the Lord and many of them perish.(CK) 22 Even the priests, who approach(CL) the Lord, must consecrate(CM) themselves, or the Lord will break out against them.”(CN)

23 Moses said to the Lord, “The people cannot come up Mount Sinai,(CO) because you yourself warned us, ‘Put limits(CP) around the mountain and set it apart as holy.’”

24 The Lord replied, “Go down and bring Aaron(CQ) up with you. But the priests and the people must not force their way through to come up to the Lord, or he will break out against them.”(CR)

25 So Moses went down to the people and told them.


  1. Exodus 18:3 Gershom sounds like the Hebrew for a foreigner there.
  2. Exodus 18:4 Eliezer means my God is helper.
  3. Exodus 19:6 Or possession, for the whole earth is mine. You
  4. Exodus 19:18 Most Hebrew manuscripts; a few Hebrew manuscripts and Septuagint and all the people
  5. Exodus 19:19 Or and God answered him with thunder

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