21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go at once and select the animals for your families and slaughter the Passover(A) lamb. 22 Take a bunch of hyssop,(B) dip it into the blood in the basin and put some of the blood(C) on the top and on both sides of the doorframe. None of you shall go out of the door of your house until morning. 23 When the Lord goes through the land to strike(D) down the Egyptians, he will see the blood(E) on the top and sides of the doorframe and will pass over(F) that doorway, and he will not permit the destroyer(G) to enter your houses and strike you down.

24 “Obey these instructions as a lasting ordinance(H) for you and your descendants. 25 When you enter the land(I) that the Lord will give you as he promised, observe this ceremony. 26 And when your children(J) ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 27 then tell them, ‘It is the Passover(K) sacrifice to the Lord, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and spared our homes when he struck down the Egyptians.’”(L) Then the people bowed down and worshiped.(M) 28 The Israelites did just what the Lord commanded(N) Moses and Aaron.

29 At midnight(O) the Lord(P) struck down all the firstborn(Q) in Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sat on the throne, to the firstborn of the prisoner, who was in the dungeon, and the firstborn of all the livestock(R) as well. 30 Pharaoh and all his officials and all the Egyptians got up during the night, and there was loud wailing(S) in Egypt, for there was not a house without someone dead.

The Exodus

31 During the night Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Up! Leave my people, you and the Israelites! Go, worship(T) the Lord as you have requested. 32 Take your flocks and herds,(U) as you have said, and go. And also bless(V) me.”

33 The Egyptians urged the people to hurry(W) and leave(X) the country. “For otherwise,” they said, “we will all die!”(Y) 34 So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, and carried it on their shoulders in kneading troughs(Z) wrapped in clothing. 35 The Israelites did as Moses instructed and asked the Egyptians for articles of silver and gold(AA) and for clothing.(AB) 36 The Lord had made the Egyptians favorably disposed(AC) toward the people, and they gave them what they asked for; so they plundered(AD) the Egyptians.

37 The Israelites journeyed from Rameses(AE) to Sukkoth.(AF) There were about six hundred thousand men(AG) on foot, besides women and children. 38 Many other people(AH) went up with them, and also large droves of livestock, both flocks and herds. 39 With the dough the Israelites had brought from Egypt, they baked loaves of unleavened bread. The dough was without yeast because they had been driven out(AI) of Egypt and did not have time to prepare food for themselves.

40 Now the length of time the Israelite people lived in Egypt[a] was 430 years.(AJ) 41 At the end of the 430 years, to the very day, all the Lord’s divisions(AK) left Egypt.(AL) 42 Because the Lord kept vigil that night to bring them out of Egypt, on this night all the Israelites are to keep vigil to honor the Lord for the generations to come.(AM)

Passover Restrictions

43 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “These are the regulations for the Passover meal:(AN)

“No foreigner(AO) may eat it. 44 Any slave you have bought may eat it after you have circumcised(AP) him, 45 but a temporary resident or a hired worker(AQ) may not eat it.

46 “It must be eaten inside the house; take none of the meat outside the house. Do not break any of the bones.(AR) 47 The whole community of Israel must celebrate it.

48 “A foreigner residing among you who wants to celebrate the Lord’s Passover must have all the males in his household circumcised; then he may take part like one born in the land.(AS) No uncircumcised(AT) male may eat it. 49 The same law applies both to the native-born and to the foreigner(AU) residing among you.”

50 All the Israelites did just what the Lord had commanded(AV) Moses and Aaron. 51 And on that very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of Egypt(AW) by their divisions.(AX)

Consecration of the Firstborn

13 The Lord said to Moses, “Consecrate to me every firstborn male.(AY) The first offspring of every womb among the Israelites belongs to me, whether human or animal.”

Then Moses said to the people, “Commemorate this day, the day you came out of Egypt,(AZ) out of the land of slavery, because the Lord brought you out of it with a mighty hand.(BA) Eat nothing containing yeast.(BB) Today, in the month of Aviv,(BC) you are leaving. When the Lord brings you into the land of the Canaanites,(BD) Hittites, Amorites, Hivites and Jebusites(BE)—the land he swore to your ancestors to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey(BF)—you are to observe this ceremony(BG) in this month: For seven days eat bread made without yeast and on the seventh day hold a festival(BH) to the Lord. Eat unleavened bread during those seven days; nothing with yeast in it is to be seen among you, nor shall any yeast be seen anywhere within your borders. On that day tell your son,(BI) ‘I do this because of what the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ This observance will be for you like a sign on your hand(BJ) and a reminder on your forehead(BK) that this law of the Lord is to be on your lips. For the Lord brought you out of Egypt with his mighty hand.(BL) 10 You must keep this ordinance(BM) at the appointed time(BN) year after year.

11 “After the Lord brings you into the land of the Canaanites(BO) and gives it to you, as he promised on oath(BP) to you and your ancestors,(BQ) 12 you are to give over to the Lord the first offspring of every womb. All the firstborn males of your livestock belong to the Lord.(BR) 13 Redeem with a lamb every firstborn donkey,(BS) but if you do not redeem it, break its neck.(BT) Redeem(BU) every firstborn among your sons.(BV)

14 “In days to come, when your son(BW) asks you, ‘What does this mean?’ say to him, ‘With a mighty hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.(BX) 15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, the Lord killed the firstborn of both people and animals in Egypt. This is why I sacrifice to the Lord the first male offspring of every womb and redeem each of my firstborn sons.’(BY) 16 And it will be like a sign on your hand and a symbol on your forehead(BZ) that the Lord brought us out of Egypt with his mighty hand.”

Crossing the Sea

17 When Pharaoh let the people go, God did not lead them on the road through the Philistine country, though that was shorter. For God said, “If they face war, they might change their minds and return to Egypt.”(CA) 18 So God led(CB) the people around by the desert road toward the Red Sea.[b] The Israelites went up out of Egypt ready for battle.(CC)

19 Moses took the bones of Joseph(CD) with him because Joseph had made the Israelites swear an oath. He had said, “God will surely come to your aid, and then you must carry my bones up with you from this place.”[c](CE)

20 After leaving Sukkoth(CF) they camped at Etham on the edge of the desert.(CG) 21 By day the Lord went ahead(CH) of them in a pillar of cloud(CI) to guide them on their way and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel by day or night. 22 Neither the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night left(CJ) its place in front of the people.

14 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell the Israelites to turn back and encamp near Pi Hahiroth, between Migdol(CK) and the sea. They are to encamp by the sea, directly opposite Baal Zephon.(CL) Pharaoh will think, ‘The Israelites are wandering around the land in confusion, hemmed in by the desert.’ And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart,(CM) and he will pursue them.(CN) But I will gain glory(CO) for myself through Pharaoh and all his army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord.”(CP) So the Israelites did this.

When the king of Egypt was told that the people had fled,(CQ) Pharaoh and his officials changed their minds(CR) about them and said, “What have we done? We have let the Israelites go and have lost their services!” So he had his chariot made ready and took his army with him. He took six hundred of the best chariots,(CS) along with all the other chariots of Egypt, with officers over all of them. The Lord hardened the heart(CT) of Pharaoh king of Egypt, so that he pursued the Israelites, who were marching out boldly.(CU) The Egyptians—all Pharaoh’s horses(CV) and chariots, horsemen[d] and troops(CW)—pursued the Israelites and overtook(CX) them as they camped by the sea near Pi Hahiroth, opposite Baal Zephon.(CY)

10 As Pharaoh approached, the Israelites looked up, and there were the Egyptians, marching after them. They were terrified and cried(CZ) out to the Lord. 11 They said to Moses, “Was it because there were no graves in Egypt that you brought us to the desert to die?(DA) What have you done to us by bringing us out of Egypt? 12 Didn’t we say to you in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone; let us serve the Egyptians’? It would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the desert!”(DB)

13 Moses answered the people, “Do not be afraid.(DC) Stand firm and you will see(DD) the deliverance the Lord will bring you today. The Egyptians you see today you will never see(DE) again. 14 The Lord will fight(DF) for you; you need only to be still.”(DG)


  1. Exodus 12:40 Masoretic Text; Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint Egypt and Canaan
  2. Exodus 13:18 Or the Sea of Reeds
  3. Exodus 13:19 See Gen. 50:25.
  4. Exodus 14:9 Or charioteers; also in verses 17, 18, 23, 26 and 28

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