Israel Increases Greatly in Egypt

(A)These are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob, each with his household: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. All the descendants of Jacob were (B)seventy persons; Joseph was already in Egypt. Then (C)Joseph died, and all his brothers and all that generation. (D)But the people of Israel were fruitful and increased greatly; they multiplied and grew exceedingly strong, so that the land was filled with them.

Pharaoh Oppresses Israel

Now there arose a new king over Egypt, (E)who did not know Joseph. And he said to his people, “Behold, (F)the people of Israel are too many and too mighty for us. 10 (G)Come, (H)let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they multiply, and, if war breaks out, they join our enemies and fight against us and escape from the land.” 11 Therefore they set taskmasters over them (I)to afflict them with heavy (J)burdens. They built for Pharaoh (K)store cities, Pithom and (L)Raamses. 12 But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and the more they spread abroad. And the Egyptians were in dread of the people of Israel. 13 So they ruthlessly made the people of Israel (M)work as slaves 14 and (N)made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and brick, and in all kinds of work in the field. In all their work they ruthlessly made them work as slaves.

15 Then the king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was named Shiphrah and the other Puah, 16 “When you serve as midwife to the Hebrew women and see them on the birthstool, if it is a son, you shall kill him, but if it is a daughter, she shall live.” 17 But the midwives (O)feared God and did not do as the king of Egypt commanded them, but let the male children live. 18 So the king of Egypt called the midwives and said to them, “Why have you done this, and let the male children live?” 19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, for they are vigorous and give birth before the midwife comes to them.” 20 (P)So God dealt well with the midwives. And the people multiplied and grew very strong. 21 And because the midwives feared God, (Q)he gave them families. 22 Then Pharaoh commanded all his people, (R)“Every son that is born to the Hebrews[a] you shall cast into (S)the Nile, but you shall let every daughter live.”

The Birth of Moses

Now a (T)man from the house of Levi went and took as his wife a Levite woman. The woman conceived and bore a son, and (U)when she saw that he was a fine child, she hid him three months. When she could hide him no longer, she took for him a basket made of bulrushes[b] and daubed it with bitumen and pitch. She put the child in it and placed it among the (V)reeds by the river bank. And (W)his sister stood at a distance to know what would be done to him. Now the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe at the river, while her young women walked beside the river. She saw the basket among the reeds and sent her servant woman, and she took it. When she opened it, she saw the child, and behold, the baby was crying. She took pity on him and said, “This is one of the Hebrews' children.” Then his sister said to Pharaoh's daughter, “Shall I go and call you a nurse from the Hebrew women to nurse the child for you?” And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, “Go.” So the girl went and called the child's mother. And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, “Take this child away and nurse him for me, and I will give you your wages.” So the woman took the child and nursed him. 10 When the child grew older, she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, and he became (X)her son. She named him Moses, “Because,” she said, “I (Y)drew him out of the water.”[c]

Moses Flees to Midian

11 One day, (Z)when Moses had grown up, he went out to his people and looked on their (AA)burdens, and he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his people.[d] 12 He looked this way and that, and seeing no one, he (AB)struck down the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. 13 When (AC)he went out the next day, behold, two Hebrews were struggling together. And he said to the man in the wrong, “Why do you strike your companion?” 14 He answered, (AD)“Who made you a prince and a judge over us? Do you mean to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid, and thought, “Surely the thing is known.” 15 When Pharaoh heard of it, he sought to kill Moses. But (AE)Moses fled from Pharaoh and stayed in the land of Midian. And he sat down by (AF)a well.

16 Now the (AG)priest of Midian had seven daughters, and (AH)they came and drew water and filled the troughs to water their father's flock. 17 The shepherds came and drove them away, but Moses stood up and saved them, and (AI)watered their flock. 18 When they came home to their father (AJ)Reuel, he said, “How is it that you have come home so soon today?” 19 They said, “An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds and even drew water for us and (AK)watered the flock.” 20 He said to his daughters, “Then where is he? Why have you left the man? Call him, that he may (AL)eat bread.” 21 And Moses was content to dwell with the man, and he gave Moses his daughter (AM)Zipporah. 22 She gave birth to a son, and he called his name (AN)Gershom, for he said, “I have been a (AO)sojourner[e] in a foreign land.”

God Hears Israel's Groaning

23 (AP)During those many days the king of Egypt died, and the people of Israel (AQ)groaned because of their slavery and cried out for help. (AR)Their cry for rescue from slavery came up to God. 24 And (AS)God heard their groaning, and God (AT)remembered his covenant with (AU)Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. 25 God (AV)saw the people of Israel—and God (AW)knew.

The Burning Bush

Now Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law, Jethro, the priest of Midian, and he led his flock to the west side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the (AX)mountain of God. (AY)And (AZ)the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. He looked, and behold, the bush was burning, yet it was not consumed. And Moses said, “I will turn aside to see this great sight, why the bush is not burned.” When the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, (BA)God called to him (BB)out of the bush, “Moses, Moses!” And he said, “Here I am.” Then he said, “Do not come near; (BC)take your sandals off your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground.” And he said, (BD)“I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” And Moses hid his face, for (BE)he was afraid to look at God.

Then the Lord said, (BF)“I have surely seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt and have heard their cry because of their (BG)taskmasters. I know their sufferings, and (BH)I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians and (BI)to bring them up out of that land to a (BJ)good and broad land, a land (BK)flowing with milk and honey, to the place of (BL)the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites. And now, behold, (BM)the cry of the people of Israel has come to me, and I have also seen the (BN)oppression with which the Egyptians oppress them. 10 (BO)Come, I will send you to Pharaoh that you may bring my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.” 11 But Moses said to God, (BP)“Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh and bring the children of Israel out of Egypt?” 12 He said, (BQ)“But I will be with you, and this shall be the sign for you, that I have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, (BR)you shall serve God on this mountain.”

13 Then Moses said to God, “If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what shall I say to them?” 14 God said to Moses, “I am who I am.”[f] And he said, “Say this to the people of Israel: (BS)I am has sent me to you.’” 15 God also said to Moses, “Say this to the people of Israel: ‘The Lord,[g] the (BT)God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is (BU)my name forever, and thus I am to be remembered throughout all generations. 16 Go and (BV)gather the elders of Israel together and say to them, ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has appeared to me, saying, (BW)“I have observed you and what has been done to you in Egypt, 17 and I promise that (BX)I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, a land (BY)flowing with milk and honey.”’ 18 And (BZ)they will listen to your voice, and you and the elders of Israel (CA)shall go to the king of Egypt and say to him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has (CB)met with us; and now, please let us go a three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God.’ 19 But I know that the king of Egypt (CC)will not let you go unless compelled (CD)by a mighty hand.[h] 20 So (CE)I will stretch out my hand and strike Egypt with (CF)all the wonders that I will do in it; (CG)after that he will let you go. 21 And (CH)I will give this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians; and when you go, you shall not go empty, 22 but each woman shall ask of her neighbor, and any woman who lives in her house, for (CI)silver and gold jewelry, and for clothing. You shall put them on your sons and on your daughters. So (CJ)you shall plunder the Egyptians.”

Moses Given Powerful Signs

Then Moses answered, “But behold, they will not believe me or listen to my voice, for they will say, ‘The Lord did not appear to you.’” The Lord said to him, “What is that in your hand?” He said, (CK)“A staff.” And he said, “Throw it on the ground.” So he threw it on the ground, and it became a serpent, and Moses ran from it. But the Lord said to Moses, “Put out your hand and catch it by the tail”—so he put out his hand and caught it, and it became a staff in his hand— “that they may (CL)believe that the Lord, (CM)the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.” Again, the Lord said to him, “Put your hand inside your cloak.”[i] And he put his hand inside his cloak, and when he took it out, behold, his hand was (CN)leprous[j] like snow. Then God said, “Put your hand back inside your cloak.” So he put his hand back inside his cloak, and when he took it out, behold, (CO)it was restored like the rest of his flesh. “If they will not believe you,” God said, “or listen to the first sign, they may believe the latter sign. If they will not believe even these two signs or listen to your voice, you shall take some water from the Nile and pour it on the dry ground, and the water that you shall take from the Nile (CP)will become blood on the dry ground.”

10 But Moses said to the Lord, “Oh, my Lord, I am not eloquent, either in the past or since you have spoken to your servant, but (CQ)I am slow of speech and of tongue.” 11 Then the Lord said to him, “Who has made man's mouth? Who makes him mute, or deaf, or seeing, or blind? Is it not I, the Lord? 12 Now therefore go, and (CR)I will be with your mouth and teach you what you shall speak.” 13 But he said, “Oh, my Lord, please send someone else.” 14 Then the anger of the Lord was kindled against Moses and he said, “Is there not Aaron, your brother, the Levite? I know that he can speak well. Behold, (CS)he is coming out to meet you, and when he sees you, he will be glad in his heart. 15 (CT)You shall speak to him and (CU)put the words in his mouth, and (CV)I will be with your mouth and with his mouth and will teach you both what to do. 16 (CW)He shall speak for you to the people, and he shall be your mouth, and (CX)you shall be as God to him. 17 And take in your hand (CY)this staff, with which you shall do the signs.”

Moses Returns to Egypt

18 Moses went back to (CZ)Jethro his father-in-law and said to him, “Please let me go back to my brothers in Egypt to see whether they are still alive.” And Jethro said to Moses, “Go in peace.” 19 And the Lord said to Moses in Midian, “Go back to Egypt, for (DA)all the men who were seeking your life are dead.” 20 So Moses took (DB)his wife and his sons and had them ride on a donkey, and went back to the land of Egypt. And Moses took (DC)the staff of God in his hand.

21 And the Lord said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the (DD)miracles that I have put in your power. But (DE)I will harden his heart, so that he will not let the people go. 22 Then you shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the Lord, (DF)Israel is my (DG)firstborn son, 23 and I say to you, “Let my son go that he may serve me.” If you refuse to let him go, behold, I (DH)will kill your firstborn son.’”

24 At a lodging place on the way (DI)the Lord met him and (DJ)sought to put him to death. 25 Then (DK)Zipporah took a (DL)flint and cut off her son's foreskin and touched Moses'[k] feet with it and said, “Surely you are a bridegroom of blood to me!” 26 So he let him alone. It was then that she said, “A bridegroom of blood,” because of the circumcision.

27 The Lord said to Aaron, “Go into the wilderness (DM)to meet Moses.” So he went and met him at the (DN)mountain of God and kissed him. 28 And Moses (DO)told Aaron all the words of the Lord with which he had sent him to speak, and all (DP)the signs that he had commanded him to do. 29 Then Moses and Aaron (DQ)went and gathered together all the elders of the people of Israel. 30 (DR)Aaron spoke all the words that the Lord had spoken to Moses and did the signs in the sight of the people. 31 And the people (DS)believed; and when they heard that the Lord had (DT)visited the people of Israel and that he had (DU)seen their affliction, (DV)they bowed their heads and worshiped.

Making Bricks Without Straw

Afterward Moses and Aaron went and said to Pharaoh, “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, ‘Let my people go, that they may hold (DW)a feast to me in the wilderness.’” But Pharaoh said, (DX)“Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice and let Israel go? I do not know the Lord, and moreover, (DY)I will not let Israel go.” Then they said, “The (DZ)God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please let us go a three days' journey into the wilderness that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God, lest he fall upon us with pestilence or with the sword.” But the king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you take the people away from their work? Get back to your (EA)burdens.” And Pharaoh said, “Behold, (EB)the people of the land are now many,[l] and you make them rest from their burdens!” The same day Pharaoh commanded the (EC)taskmasters of the people and their (ED)foremen, “You shall no longer give the people straw to make bricks, as in the past; let them go and gather straw for themselves. But the number of bricks that they made in the past you shall impose on them, you shall by no means reduce it, for they are idle. Therefore they cry, ‘Let us go and offer sacrifice to our God.’ Let heavier work be laid on the men that they may labor at it and pay no regard to lying words.”

10 So the (EE)taskmasters and the foremen of the people went out and said to the people, “Thus says Pharaoh, ‘I will not give you straw. 11 Go and get your straw yourselves wherever you can find it, but your work will not be reduced in the least.’” 12 So the people were scattered throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw. 13 The (EF)taskmasters were urgent, saying, “Complete your work, your daily task each day, as when there was straw.” 14 And the foremen of the people of Israel, whom Pharaoh's (EG)taskmasters had set over them, were beaten and were asked, “Why have you not done all your task of making bricks today and yesterday, as in the past?”

15 Then the foremen of the people of Israel came and cried to Pharaoh, “Why do you treat your servants like this? 16 No straw is given to your servants, yet they say to us, ‘Make bricks!’ And behold, your servants are beaten; but the fault is in your own people.” 17 But he said, “You are idle, you are idle; that is why you say, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to the Lord.’ 18 Go now and work. No straw will be given you, but you must still deliver the same number of bricks.” 19 The foremen of the people of Israel saw that they were in trouble when they said, “You shall by no means reduce your number of bricks, your daily task each day.” 20 They met Moses and Aaron, who were waiting for them, as they came out from Pharaoh; 21 and (EH)they said to them, “The Lord look on you and judge, because you have made us stink in the sight of Pharaoh and his servants, and have put a sword in their hand to kill us.”

22 Then Moses turned to the Lord and said, “O Lord, why have you done evil to this people? Why did you ever send me? 23 For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in your name, he has done evil to this people, and you have not delivered your people at all.”

God Promises Deliverance

But the Lord said to Moses, “Now you shall see what I will do to Pharaoh; for with a strong hand he will send them out, and with (EI)a strong hand he will (EJ)drive them out of his land.”

God spoke to Moses and said to him, (EK)“I am the Lord. I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as (EL)God Almighty,[m] but by my name the (EM)Lord I did not make myself known to them. (EN)I also established my covenant with them (EO)to give them the land of Canaan, the land in which they lived as sojourners. Moreover, (EP)I have heard the groaning of the people of Israel whom the Egyptians hold as slaves, and I have remembered my covenant. Say therefore to the people of Israel, (EQ)‘I am the Lord, and (ER)I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from slavery to them, and (ES)I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great acts of judgment. I (ET)will take you to be my people, and (EU)I will be your God, and you shall know that (EV)I am the Lord your God, who has brought you out (EW)from under the burdens of the Egyptians. I will bring you into (EX)the land that I (EY)swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. I will give it to you for a possession. (EZ)I am the Lord.’” Moses spoke thus to the people of Israel, but they (FA)did not listen to Moses, because of their broken spirit and harsh slavery.

10 So the Lord said to Moses, 11 “Go in, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt to let the people of Israel go out of his land.” 12 But Moses said to the Lord, “Behold, the people of Israel have (FB)not listened to me. How then shall Pharaoh listen to me, for (FC)I am of uncircumcised lips?” 13 But the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge about the people of Israel and about Pharaoh king of Egypt: to bring the people of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

The Genealogy of Moses and Aaron

14 These are the heads of their fathers' houses: the (FD)sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi; these are the clans of Reuben. 15 The (FE)sons of Simeon: Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman; these are the clans of Simeon. 16 These are the names of the (FF)sons of Levi according to their generations: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari, the years of the life of Levi being 137 years. 17 The (FG)sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei, by their clans. 18 The (FH)sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, the years of the life of Kohath being 133 years. 19 The (FI)sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the clans of the Levites according to their generations. 20 (FJ)Amram took as his wife Jochebed his father's sister, and she bore him Aaron and Moses, the years of the life of Amram being 137 years. 21 (FK)The sons of Izhar: Korah, Nepheg, and Zichri. 22 The (FL)sons of Uzziel: Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri. 23 Aaron took as his wife Elisheba, the daughter of (FM)Amminadab and the sister of (FN)Nahshon, and she bore him (FO)Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. 24 The (FP)sons of Korah: Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph; these are the clans of the Korahites. 25 Eleazar, Aaron's son, took as his wife one of the daughters of Putiel, and (FQ)she bore him Phinehas. These are the heads of the fathers' houses of the Levites by their clans.

26 These are the Aaron and Moses (FR)to whom the Lord said: “Bring out the people of Israel from the land of Egypt (FS)by their hosts.” 27 It was they who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt about bringing out the people of Israel from Egypt, this Moses and this Aaron.

28 On the day when the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt, 29 the Lord said to Moses, (FT)“I am the Lord; (FU)tell Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say to you.” 30 But Moses said to the Lord, “Behold, (FV)I am of uncircumcised lips. How will Pharaoh listen to me?”

Moses and Aaron Before Pharaoh

And the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like (FW)God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your (FX)prophet. (FY)You shall speak all that I command you, and your brother Aaron shall tell Pharaoh to let the people of Israel go out of his land. But (FZ)I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and though I (GA)multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, Pharaoh will not listen to you. Then I will lay my hand on Egypt and bring my hosts, my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great acts of judgment. The Egyptians (GB)shall know that I am the Lord, when I stretch out my hand against Egypt and bring out the people of Israel from among them.” Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the Lord commanded them. Now Moses was (GC)eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three years old, when they spoke to Pharaoh.

Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “When Pharaoh says to you, (GD)‘Prove yourselves by working a miracle,’ then you shall say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it may become a serpent.’” 10 So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did just as the Lord commanded. Aaron cast down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants, and it became a serpent. 11 Then Pharaoh summoned the wise men and the sorcerers, and they, the (GE)magicians of Egypt, also (GF)did the same by their secret arts. 12 For each man cast down his staff, and they became serpents. But Aaron's staff swallowed up their staffs. 13 Still (GG)Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, (GH)as the Lord had said.

The First Plague: Water Turned to Blood

14 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh's heart is hardened; he refuses to let the people go. 15 (GI)Go to Pharaoh in the morning, as he is going out to the water. Stand on the bank of the Nile to meet him, and take in your hand (GJ)the staff that turned into a (GK)serpent. 16 And you shall say to him, ‘The (GL)Lord, the God of the Hebrews, sent me to you, saying, “Let my people go, (GM)that they may serve me in the wilderness.” But so far, you have not obeyed. 17 Thus says the Lord, “By this (GN)you shall know that I am the Lord: behold, with the staff that is in my hand I will strike the water that is in the Nile, and (GO)it shall turn into blood. 18 The fish in the Nile shall die, and the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will (GP)grow weary of drinking water from the Nile.”’” 19 And the Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and (GQ)stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, their canals, and their ponds, and all their pools of water, so that they may become blood, and there shall be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, even in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone.’”

20 Moses and Aaron did as the Lord commanded. In the sight of Pharaoh and in the sight of his servants he (GR)lifted up the staff and struck the water in the Nile, and all the (GS)water in the Nile turned into blood. 21 And the fish in the Nile died, and the Nile stank, so that the Egyptians (GT)could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood throughout all the land of Egypt. 22 But (GU)the magicians of Egypt did the same by their secret arts. So (GV)Pharaoh's heart remained hardened, and he would not listen to them, as (GW)the Lord had said. 23 Pharaoh turned and went into his house, and he did not take even this to heart. 24 And all the Egyptians dug along the Nile for water to drink, for they could not drink the water of the Nile.

25 Seven full days passed after the Lord had struck the Nile.

The Second Plague: Frogs

[n] Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Let my people go, that (GX)they may serve me. But if you (GY)refuse to let them go, behold, I will plague all your country with (GZ)frogs. The Nile shall swarm with frogs that shall come up into your house and into (HA)your bedroom and on your bed and into the houses of your servants and your people,[o] and into your ovens and your kneading bowls. The frogs shall come up on you and on your people and on all your servants.”’” [p] And the Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, (HB)‘Stretch out your hand with your staff over the rivers, over the canals and over the pools, and make frogs come up on the land of Egypt!’” So Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and (HC)the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt. But (HD)the magicians did the same by their secret arts and made frogs come up on the land of Egypt.

Then Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron and said, (HE)“Plead with the Lord to take away the frogs from me and from my people, and (HF)I will let the people go to sacrifice to the Lord.” Moses said to Pharaoh, “Be pleased to command me when (HG)I am to plead for you and for your servants and for your people, that the frogs be cut off from you and your houses and be left only in the Nile.” 10 And he said, “Tomorrow.” Moses said, “Be it as you say, so (HH)that you may know that (HI)there is no one like the Lord our God. 11 The frogs shall go away from you and your houses and your servants and your people. They shall be left only in the Nile.” 12 So Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried to the Lord about the frogs, as he had agreed with Pharaoh.[q] 13 And the Lord did according to the word of Moses. The frogs died out in the houses, the courtyards, and the fields. 14 And they gathered them together in heaps, and the land stank. 15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was a (HJ)respite, he (HK)hardened his heart and would not listen to them, as the Lord had said.

The Third Plague: Gnats

16 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, (HL)‘Stretch out your staff and strike the dust of the earth, so that it may become gnats in all the land of Egypt.’” 17 And they did so. Aaron stretched out his hand with his staff and struck the dust of the earth, and (HM)there were gnats on man and beast. All the dust of the earth became gnats in all the land of Egypt. 18 The (HN)magicians tried by their secret arts to produce gnats, but they could not. So there were gnats on man and beast. 19 Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is (HO)the finger of God.” But Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the Lord had said.

The Fourth Plague: Flies

20 Then the Lord said to Moses, (HP)“Rise up early in the morning and present yourself to Pharaoh, as he goes out to the water, and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord, (HQ)“Let my people go, that they may serve me. 21 Or else, if you will not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you and your servants and your people, and into your houses. And the houses of the Egyptians shall be filled with swarms of flies, and also the ground on which they stand. 22 But on that day (HR)I will set apart the land of Goshen, where my people dwell, so that no swarms of flies shall be there, (HS)that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth.[r] 23 Thus I will put a division[s] between my people and your people. Tomorrow this sign shall happen.”’” 24 And the Lord did so. (HT)There came great swarms of flies into the house of Pharaoh and into his servants' houses. Throughout all the land of Egypt the land was ruined by the swarms of flies.

25 Then Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.” 26 But Moses said, “It would not be right to do so, for the offerings we shall sacrifice to the Lord our God are an (HU)abomination to the Egyptians. If we sacrifice offerings (HV)abominable to the Egyptians before their eyes, will they not stone us? 27 We must go (HW)three days' journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to the Lord our God (HX)as he tells us.” 28 So Pharaoh said, “I will let you go to sacrifice to the Lord your God in the wilderness; only you must not go very far away. (HY)Plead for me.” 29 Then Moses said, “Behold, I am going out from you and I will plead with the Lord that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, tomorrow. Only let not Pharaoh (HZ)cheat again by not letting the people go to sacrifice to the Lord.” 30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord. 31 And the Lord did as Moses asked, and removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; not one remained. 32 But Pharaoh (IA)hardened his heart this time also, and did not let the people go.

The Fifth Plague: Egyptian Livestock Die

Then the Lord said to Moses, (IB)“Go in to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says (IC)the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Let my people go, that they may serve me. For if you refuse to let them go and still hold them, behold, (ID)the hand of the Lord will fall with a very severe plague upon your livestock that are in the field, the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herds, and the flocks. (IE)But the Lord will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, so that nothing of all that belongs to the people of Israel shall die.”’” And the Lord set a time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this thing in the land.” And the next day the Lord did this thing. (IF)All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one of the livestock of the people of Israel died. And Pharaoh sent, and behold, not one of the livestock of Israel was dead. But (IG)the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go.

The Sixth Plague: Boils

And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot from the kiln, and let Moses throw them in the air in the sight of Pharaoh. It shall become fine dust over all the land of Egypt, and become (IH)boils breaking out in sores on man and beast throughout all the land of Egypt.” 10 So they took soot from the kiln and stood before Pharaoh. And Moses threw it in the air, and it became boils breaking out in sores on man and beast. 11 And (II)the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for the boils came upon the magicians and upon all the Egyptians. 12 (IJ)But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he did not listen to them, as (IK)the Lord had spoken to Moses.

The Seventh Plague: Hail

13 Then the Lord said to Moses, (IL)“Rise up early in the morning and present yourself before Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Let my people go, that they may serve me. 14 For this time I will send all my plagues on you yourself,[t] and on your servants and your people, so (IM)that you may know that there is none like me in all the earth. 15 For by now I could have put out my hand and struck you and your people with pestilence, and you would have been cut off from the earth. 16 (IN)But for this purpose I have raised you up, to show you my power, so (IO)that my name may be proclaimed in all the earth. 17 (IP)You are still exalting yourself against my people and will not let them go. 18 Behold, about this time tomorrow I will cause very heavy hail to fall, such as never has been in Egypt from the day it was founded until now. 19 Now therefore send, (IQ)get your livestock and all that you have in the field into safe shelter, for every man and beast that is in the field and is not brought home will die when the hail falls on them.”’” 20 Then whoever feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh hurried his slaves and his livestock into the houses, 21 but whoever did not pay attention to the word of the Lord left his slaves and his livestock in the field.

22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, so that there may be (IR)hail in all the land of Egypt, on man and beast and every plant of the field, in the land of Egypt.” 23 Then Moses stretched out his staff toward heaven, and the (IS)Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire ran down to the earth. And the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt. 24 There was hail and fire flashing continually in the midst of the hail, very heavy hail, such as had never been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation. 25 The hail struck down everything that was in the field in all the land of Egypt, both man and beast. And the hail (IT)struck down every plant of the field and broke every tree of the field. 26 (IU)Only in the land of Goshen, where the people of Israel were, was there no hail.

27 Then Pharaoh sent and called Moses and Aaron and said to them, “This time (IV)I have sinned; the (IW)Lord is in the right, and I and my people are in the wrong. 28 (IX)Plead with the Lord, for there has been enough of God's thunder and hail. I will let you go, and you shall stay no longer.” 29 Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, (IY)I will stretch out my hands to the Lord. The thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that (IZ)the earth is the Lord's. 30 But as for you and your servants, (JA)I know that you do not yet fear the Lord God.” 31 (The flax and the barley were struck down, for the barley was in the ear and the flax was in bud. 32 But the wheat and the emmer[u] were not struck down, for they are late in coming up.) 33 So Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh and (JB)stretched out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain no longer poured upon the earth. 34 But when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunder had ceased, he sinned yet again and (JC)hardened his heart, (JD)he and his servants. 35 So (JE)the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people of Israel go, just as the Lord had spoken through Moses.

The Eighth Plague: Locusts

10 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I may show these signs of mine among them, and (JF)that you may tell in the hearing of your son and of your grandson how I have dealt harshly with the Egyptians and what signs I have done among them, (JG)that you may know that I am the Lord.”

So Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh and said to him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, ‘How long will you refuse to (JH)humble yourself before me? Let my people go, that they may serve me. For if you refuse to let my people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring (JI)locusts into your country, and they shall cover the face of the land, so that no one can see the land. And they shall (JJ)eat what is left to you after the hail, and they shall eat every tree of yours that grows in the field,

Footnotes

  1. Exodus 1:22 Samaritan, Septuagint, Targum; Hebrew lacks to the Hebrews
  2. Exodus 2:3 Hebrew papyrus reeds
  3. Exodus 2:10 Moses sounds like the Hebrew for draw out
  4. Exodus 2:11 Hebrew brothers
  5. Exodus 2:22 Gershom sounds like the Hebrew for sojourner
  6. Exodus 3:14 Or I am what I am, or I will be what I will be
  7. Exodus 3:15 The word Lord, when spelled with capital letters, stands for the divine name, YHWH, which is here connected with the verb hayah, “to be” in verse 14
  8. Exodus 3:19 Septuagint, Vulgate; Hebrew go, not by a mighty hand
  9. Exodus 4:6 Hebrew into your bosom; also verse 7
  10. Exodus 4:6 Leprosy was a term for several skin diseases; see Leviticus 13
  11. Exodus 4:25 Hebrew his
  12. Exodus 5:5 Samaritan they are now more numerous than the people of the land
  13. Exodus 6:3 Hebrew El Shaddai
  14. Exodus 8:1 Ch 7:26 in Hebrew
  15. Exodus 8:3 Or among your people
  16. Exodus 8:5 Ch 8:1 in Hebrew
  17. Exodus 8:12 Or which he had brought upon Pharaoh
  18. Exodus 8:22 Or that I the Lord am in the land
  19. Exodus 8:23 Septuagint, Vulgate; Hebrew set redemption
  20. Exodus 9:14 Hebrew on your heart
  21. Exodus 9:32 A type of wheat

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