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The Covenant Setting

This is what[a] Moses said to all of Israel in the Transjordanian[b] wilderness, the arid rift valley opposite[c] Suph,[d] between[e] Paran[f] and Tophel,[g] Laban,[h] Hazeroth,[i] and Di Zahab.[j] Now it is ordinarily an eleven-day journey[k] from Horeb[l] to Kadesh Barnea[m] by way of Mount Seir.[n] However, it was not until[o] the first day of the eleventh month[p] of the fortieth year[q] that Moses addressed the Israelites just as[r] the Lord had instructed him to do. This took place after the defeat[s] of King Sihon[t] of the Amorites, whose capital was[u] in Heshbon,[v] and King Og of Bashan, whose capital was[w] in Ashtaroth,[x] specifically in Edrei.[y] So it was in the Transjordan, in Moab, that Moses began to deliver these words:[z]

Events at Horeb

The Lord our God spoke to us at Horeb and said, “You have stayed[aa] in the area of this mountain long enough. Head out[ab] and resume your journey. Enter the Amorite hill country, and all its neighboring areas, including the rift valley,[ac] the hill country, the foothills,[ad] the Negev,[ae] and the coastal plain—all of Canaan and Lebanon as far as the Great River, that is, the Euphrates. Look! I have already given the land to you.[af] Go, occupy the territory that I,[ag] the Lord, promised[ah] to give to your ancestors[ai] Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their descendants.”[aj] I also said to you at that time, “I am no longer able to sustain you by myself. 10 The Lord your God has increased your population[ak] to the point that you are now as numerous as the very stars of the sky.[al] 11 Indeed, may the Lord, the God of your ancestors, make you a thousand times more numerous than you are now, blessing you[am] just as he said he would! 12 But how can I alone bear up under the burden of your hardship and strife? 13 Select wise and practical[an] men, those known among your tribes, whom I may appoint as your leaders.” 14 You replied to me that what I had said to you was good. 15 So I chose[ao] as your tribal leaders wise and well-known men, placing them over you as administrators of groups of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, and also as other tribal officials. 16 I furthermore admonished your judges at that time that they[ap] should pay attention to issues among your fellow citizens[aq] and judge fairly,[ar] whether between one person and a native Israelite[as] or a resident foreigner.[at] 17 They[au] must not discriminate in judgment, but hear the lowly[av] and the great alike. Nor should they be intimidated by human beings, for judgment belongs to God. If the matter being adjudicated is too difficult for them, they should bring it before me for a hearing.

Instructions at Kadesh Barnea

18 So I instructed you at that time regarding everything you should do. 19 Then we left Horeb and passed through all that immense, forbidding wilderness that you saw on the way to the Amorite hill country as the Lord our God had commanded us to do, finally arriving at Kadesh Barnea. 20 Then I said to you, “You have come to the Amorite hill country, which the Lord our God is about to give[aw] us. 21 Look, he[ax] has placed the land in front of you![ay] Go up, take possession of it, just as the Lord, the God of your ancestors, said to do. Do not be afraid or discouraged!” 22 So all of you approached me and said, “Let’s send some men ahead of us to scout out the land and bring us back word as to how we should attack it and what the cities are like there.” 23 I thought this was a good idea,[az] so I sent[ba] twelve men from among you, one from each tribe. 24 They left and went up to the hill country, coming to the Eshcol Valley,[bb] which they scouted out. 25 Then they took[bc] some of the produce of the land and carried it back down to us. They also brought a report to us, saying, “The land that the Lord our God is about to give us is good.”

Disobedience at Kadesh Barnea

26 You were not willing to go up, however, but instead rebelled against the Lord your God.[bd] 27 You complained among yourselves privately[be] and said, “Because the Lord hates us he brought us from Egypt to deliver us over to the Amorites so they could destroy us! 28 What is going to happen to us? Our brothers have drained away our courage[bf] by describing people who are more numerous[bg] and taller than we are, and great cities whose defenses appear to be as high as heaven[bh] itself! Moreover, they said they saw[bi] Anakites[bj] there.” 29 So I responded to you, “Do not be terrified[bk] of them! 30 The Lord your God is about to go[bl] ahead of you; he will fight for you, just as you saw him do in Egypt[bm] 31 and in the wilderness, where you saw him[bn] carrying you along like a man carries his son. This he did everywhere you went until you came to this very place.” 32 However, through all this you did not have confidence in the Lord your God, 33 who would go before you on the way to find places for you to camp, appearing in a fire at night and in a cloud by day to show you the way you ought to go.

Judgment at Kadesh Barnea

34 When the Lord heard you, he became angry and made this vow:[bo] 35 “Not a single person[bp] of this evil generation will see the good land that I promised to give to your ancestors! 36 The exception is Caleb son of Jephunneh;[bq] he will see it and I will give him and his descendants the territory on which he has walked, because he has wholeheartedly followed me.”[br] 37 As for me, the Lord was also angry with me on your account. He said, “You also will not be able to go there. 38 However, Joshua son of Nun, your assistant,[bs] will go. Encourage him, because he will enable Israel to inherit the land.[bt] 39 Also, your infants, who you thought would die on the way,[bu] and your children, who as yet do not know good from bad,[bv] will go there; I will give them the land and they will possess it. 40 But as for you,[bw] turn back and head for the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea.”[bx]

Unsuccessful Conquest of Canaan

41 Then you responded to me and admitted, “We have sinned against the Lord. We will now go up and fight as the Lord our God has told us to do.” So you each put on your battle gear and prepared to go up to the hill country. 42 But the Lord told me: “Tell them this: ‘Do not go up and fight, because I will not be with you and you will be defeated by your enemies.’” 43 I spoke to you, but you did not listen. Instead you rebelled against the Lord[by] and recklessly went up to the hill country. 44 The Amorite inhabitants of that area[bz] confronted[ca] you and chased you like a swarm of bees, striking you down from Seir as far as Hormah.[cb] 45 Then you came back and wept before the Lord, but he[cc] paid no attention to you whatsoever.[cd] 46 Therefore, you remained at Kadesh for a long time—indeed, for the full time.[ce]


  1. Deuteronomy 1:1 tn Heb “These are the words.”
  2. Deuteronomy 1:1 tn Heb “on the other side of the Jordan.” This would appear to favor authorship by someone living on the west side of the Jordan, that is, in Canaan, whereas the biblical tradition locates Moses on the east side (cf. v. 5). However the Hebrew phrase בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן (beʿever hayyarden) is a frozen form meaning “Transjordan,” a name appropriate from any geographical vantage point. To this day, one standing east of the Jordan can describe himself as being in Transjordan.
  3. Deuteronomy 1:1 tn The Hebrew term מוֹל (mol) may also mean “in front of” or “near” (cf. NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT).
  4. Deuteronomy 1:1 sn This place is otherwise unattested and its location is unknown. Perhaps it is Khirbet Sufah, 4 mi (6 km) SSE of Madaba, Jordan.
  5. Deuteronomy 1:1 tn The Hebrew term בֵּין (ben) may suggest “in the area of.”
  6. Deuteronomy 1:1 sn Paran is the well-known desert area between Mount Sinai and Kadesh Barnea (cf. Num 10:12; 12:16).
  7. Deuteronomy 1:1 sn Tophel refers possibly to eṭ-Ṭafîleh, 15 mi (25 km) SE of the Dead Sea, or to Dâbîlu, another name for Paran. See H. Cazelles, “Tophel (Deut. 1:1),” VT 9 (1959): 412-15.
  8. Deuteronomy 1:1 sn Laban. Perhaps this refers to Libnah (Num 33:20).
  9. Deuteronomy 1:1 sn Hazeroth. This probably refers to ʿAin Khadra. See Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 199-200.
  10. Deuteronomy 1:1 sn Di Zahab. Perhaps this refers to Mina al-Dhahab on the eastern Sinai coast.
  11. Deuteronomy 1:2 sn An eleven-day journey was about 140 mi (233 km).
  12. Deuteronomy 1:2 sn Horeb is another name for Sinai. “Horeb” occurs 9 times in the Book of Deuteronomy and “Sinai” only once (33:2). “Sinai” occurs 13 times in the Book of Exodus and “Horeb” only 3 times.
  13. Deuteronomy 1:2 sn Kadesh Barnea. Possibly this refers to ʿAin Qudeis, about 50 mi (80 km) southwest of Beer Sheba, but more likely to ʿAin Qudeirat, 5 mi (8 km) NW of ʿAin Qudeis. See R. Cohen, “Did I Excavate Kadesh Barnea?” BAR 7 (1981): 20-33.
  14. Deuteronomy 1:2 sn Mount Seir is synonymous with Edom. “By way of Mount Seir” refers to the route from Horeb that ended up in Edom Cf. CEV “by way of the Mount Seir Road”; TEV “by way of the hill country of Edom.”
  15. Deuteronomy 1:3 tn Heb “in” or “on.” Here there is a contrast between the ordinary time of eleven days (v. 2) and the actual time of forty years, so “not until” brings out that vast disparity.
  16. Deuteronomy 1:3 sn The eleventh month is Shebat in the Hebrew calendar, January/February in the modern (Gregorian) calendar.
  17. Deuteronomy 1:3 sn The fortieth year would be 1406 b.c. according to the “early” date of the exodus. See E. H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, 66-75.
  18. Deuteronomy 1:3 tn Heb “according to all which.”
  19. Deuteronomy 1:4 tn Heb “when he struck [or “smote”].”
  20. Deuteronomy 1:4 sn See Deut 2:26-3:22.
  21. Deuteronomy 1:4 tn Heb “who lived.”
  22. Deuteronomy 1:4 sn Heshbon is probably modern Tell Hesban, about 7.5 mi (12 km) south southwest of Amman, Jordan.
  23. Deuteronomy 1:4 tn Heb “who lived.”
  24. Deuteronomy 1:4 sn Ashtaroth is probably Tell ʿAshtarah, about 22 mi (35 km) due east of the Sea of Galilee.
  25. Deuteronomy 1:4 sn Edrei is probably modern Derʿa, 60 mi (95 km) south of Damascus (see Num 21:33; Josh 12:4; 13:12, 31).
  26. Deuteronomy 1:5 tn Heb “this instruction”; KJV, NIV, NRSV “this law”; TEV “God’s laws and teachings.” The Hebrew noun תּוֹרָה (torah) is derived from the verb יָרָה (yarah, “to teach”) and here it refers to the Book of Deuteronomy, not the Pentateuch as a whole.
  27. Deuteronomy 1:6 tn Heb “lived”; “dwelled.”
  28. Deuteronomy 1:7 tn Heb “turn”; NAB “Leave here”; NIV, TEV “Break camp.”
  29. Deuteronomy 1:7 sn As a geographic feature the rift valley (עֲרָבָה, ʿaravah) extends from Galilee to the Gulf of Aqaba. The reference here probably includes the Jordan Valley and continues to the wider part of the rift valley below the Dead Sea. Some versions transliterate the name as Arabah (ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).
  30. Deuteronomy 1:7 tn The שְׁפֵלָה (shephelah) is the geographical region between the Mediterranean coastal plain and the hill country, sometimes called the “western foothills” (NIV, CEV, NLT), “Judean foothills” (Holman), “lowland” (NASB, ESV), or by the Hebrew “Shephelah” (NRSV).
  31. Deuteronomy 1:7 sn The Negev is the area of central, southern Judah, south of the hill country and Beer Sheba and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is a depression extending south to the gulf of Aqaba, but the reference here is probably to the northern portion of the region.
  32. Deuteronomy 1:8 tn Heb “I have placed before you the land.”
  33. Deuteronomy 1:8 tn Heb “the Lord.” Since the Lord is speaking, it is preferable for clarity to supply the first person pronoun in the translation.
  34. Deuteronomy 1:8 tn Heb “swore” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). This refers to God’s promise, made by solemn oath, to give the patriarchs the land.
  35. Deuteronomy 1:8 tn Heb “fathers” (also in vv. 11, 21, 35).
  36. Deuteronomy 1:8 tn Heb “their seed after them.”
  37. Deuteronomy 1:10 tn Heb “multiplied you.”
  38. Deuteronomy 1:10 tn Or “heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.
  39. Deuteronomy 1:11 tn Heb “may he bless you.”
  40. Deuteronomy 1:13 tn The Hebrew verb נְבֹנִים (nevonim, from בִּין [bin]) is a Niphal referring to skill or intelligence (see T. Fretheim, NIDOTTE 1:652-53).
  41. Deuteronomy 1:15 tn Or “selected”; Heb “took.”
  42. Deuteronomy 1:16 tn Or “you.” A number of English versions treat the remainder of this verse and v. 17 as direct discourse rather than indirect discourse (cf. KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).
  43. Deuteronomy 1:16 tn Heb “brothers.” The term “brothers” could, in English, be understood to refer to siblings, so “fellow citizens” has been used in the translation.
  44. Deuteronomy 1:16 tn The Hebrew word צֶדֶק (tsedeq, “fairly”) carries the basic idea of conformity to a norm of expected behavior or character, one established by God himself. Fair judgment adheres strictly to that norm or standard (see D. Reimer, NIDOTTE 3:750).
  45. Deuteronomy 1:16 tn Heb “between a man and his brother.” The first use of “brother” in this verse refers broadly to fellow citizens. This second use is narrower, being in opposition to the “resident foreigner.” The גֵּר (ger) “resident foreigner” was not simply a foreigner (Hebrew נֵכָר; nekar) but was essentially a naturalized citizen and had equal protection under the law. This is one of the verses designed to ensure that equal treatment (see also Deut 10:16-19; 16:18-20; Exod 12:49; Num 15:16, 29).
  46. Deuteronomy 1:16 sn On the Hebrew ger (גֵּר) “resident foreigner,” see notes at Exod 12:19 and Deut 29:11.
  47. Deuteronomy 1:17 tn Heb “you,” and throughout the verse (cf. NASB, NRSV).
  48. Deuteronomy 1:17 tn Heb “the small,” but referring to social status, not physical stature.
  49. Deuteronomy 1:20 tn The Hebrew participle has an imminent future sense here, although many English versions treat it as a present tense (“is giving us,” NAB, NIV, NRSV) or a predictive future (“will give us,” NCV).
  50. Deuteronomy 1:21 tn Heb “the Lord your God.” The pronoun (“he”) has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons, to avoid repetition.
  51. Deuteronomy 1:21 tn Or “has given you the land” (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV).
  52. Deuteronomy 1:23 tn Heb “the thing was good in my eyes.”
  53. Deuteronomy 1:23 tn Or “selected” (so NIV, NRSV, TEV); Heb “took.”
  54. Deuteronomy 1:24 tn Or “the Wadi Eshcol” (so NAB).sn The Eshcol Valley is a verdant valley near Hebron, still famous for its viticulture (cf. Num 13:22-23). The Hebrew name “Eshcol” means “trestle,” that is, the frame on which grape vines grow.
  55. Deuteronomy 1:25 tn The Hebrew text includes “in their hand,” which is unnecessary and somewhat redundant in English style.
  56. Deuteronomy 1:26 tn Heb “the mouth of the Lord your God.” To include “the mouth” would make for odd English style. The mouth stands by metonymy for the Lord’s command, which in turn represents the Lord himself.
  57. Deuteronomy 1:27 tn Heb “in your tents,” that is, privately.
  58. Deuteronomy 1:28 tn Heb “have caused our hearts to melt.”
  59. Deuteronomy 1:28 tn Heb “greater.” Many English versions understand this to refer to physical size or strength rather than numbers (cf. “stronger,” NAB, NIV, NRSV; “bigger,” NASB).
  60. Deuteronomy 1:28 tn Or “as the sky.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.
  61. Deuteronomy 1:28 tn Heb “we have seen.”
  62. Deuteronomy 1:28 tn Heb “the sons of the Anakim.”sn Anakites were giant people (Num 13:33; Deut 2:10, 21; 9:2) descended from a certain Anak whose own forefather Arba founded the city of Kiriath Arba, i.e., Hebron (Josh 21:11).
  63. Deuteronomy 1:29 tn Heb “do not tremble and do not be afraid.” Two synonymous commands are combined for emphasis.
  64. Deuteronomy 1:30 tn The Hebrew participle indicates imminent future action here, though some English versions treat it as a predictive future (“will go ahead of you,” NCV; cf. also TEV, CEV).
  65. Deuteronomy 1:30 tn Heb “according to all which he did for you in Egypt before your eyes.”
  66. Deuteronomy 1:31 tn Heb “the Lord your God.” The pronoun (“him”) has been employed in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  67. Deuteronomy 1:34 tn Heb “and swore,” i.e., made an oath or vow.
  68. Deuteronomy 1:35 tn Heb “Not a man among these men.”
  69. Deuteronomy 1:36 sn Caleb had, with Joshua, brought back to Israel a minority report from Canaan urging a conquest of the land, for he was confident of the Lord’s power (Num 13:6, 8, 16, 30; 14:30, 38).
  70. Deuteronomy 1:36 tn Heb “the Lord.” The pronoun (“me”) has been employed in the translation, since it sounds strange to an English reader for the Lord to speak about himself in third person.
  71. Deuteronomy 1:38 tn Heb “the one who stands before you”; NAB “your aide”; TEV “your helper.”
  72. Deuteronomy 1:38 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the land) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  73. Deuteronomy 1:39 tn Heb “would be a prey.”
  74. Deuteronomy 1:39 sn Do not know good from bad. This is a figure of speech called a merism (suggesting a whole by referring to its extreme opposites). Other examples are the tree of “the knowledge of good and evil” (Gen 2:9), the boy who knows enough “to reject the wrong and choose the right” (Isa 7:16; 8:4), and those who “cannot tell their right hand from their left” (Jonah 4:11). A young child is characterized by lack of knowledge.
  75. Deuteronomy 1:40 tn The Hebrew pronoun is plural, as are the following verbs, indicating that Moses and the people are addressed (note v. 41).
  76. Deuteronomy 1:40 tn Heb “the Reed Sea.” “Reed” is a better translation of the Hebrew סוּף (suf), traditionally rendered “red.” The name “Red Sea” is based on the LXX which referred to it as ἐρυθρᾶς θαλάσσης (eruthras thalassēs, “red sea”). Nevertheless, because the body of water in question is known in modern times as the Red Sea, this term was used in the translation. The part of the Red Sea in view here is not the one crossed in the exodus but its eastern arm, now known as the Gulf of Eilat or Gulf of Aqaba.
  77. Deuteronomy 1:43 tn Heb “the mouth of the Lord.” See note at 1:26.
  78. Deuteronomy 1:44 tn Heb “in that hill country,” repeating the end of v. 43.
  79. Deuteronomy 1:44 tn Heb “came out to meet.”
  80. Deuteronomy 1:44 sn Hormah is probably Khirbet el-Meshash, 5.5 mi (9 km) west of Arad and 7.5 mi (12 km) SE of Beer Sheba. Its name is a derivative of the verb חָרָם (kharam, “to ban; to exterminate”). See Num 21:3.
  81. Deuteronomy 1:45 tn Heb “the Lord.” The pronoun (“he”) has been employed in the translation here for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy.
  82. Deuteronomy 1:45 tn Heb “did not hear your voice and did not turn an ear to you.”
  83. Deuteronomy 1:46 tn Heb “like the days which you lived.” This refers to the rest of the forty-year period in the desert before Israel arrived in Moab.