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So I will set Moab on fire,[a]
and it will consume Kerioth’s[b] fortresses.
Moab will perish[c] in the heat of battle[d]
amid war cries and the blaring[e] of the ram’s horn.[f]
I will remove[g] Moab’s leader;[h]
I will kill all Moab’s[i] officials[j] with him.”
The Lord has spoken!

This is what the Lord says:

“Because Judah has committed three covenant transgressions[k]
make that four[l]—I will not revoke my decree of judgment.[m]
They rejected the Lord’s law;[n]
they did not obey his commands.
Their false gods,[o]
to which their fathers were loyal,[p]
led them astray.

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  1. Amos 2:2 sn The destruction of Moab by fire is an example of a judgment in kind—as the Moabites committed the crime of “burning,” so the Lord will punish them by setting them on fire.
  2. Amos 2:2 sn Kerioth was an important Moabite city. See Jer 48:24, 41.
  3. Amos 2:2 tn Or “die” (KJV, NASB, NRSV, TEV); cf. NAB “shall meet death.”
  4. Amos 2:2 tn Or “in the tumult.” This word refers to the harsh confusion of sounds that characterized an ancient battle—a mixture of war cries, shouts, shrieks of pain, clashes of weapons, etc.
  5. Amos 2:2 tn Heb “sound” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV).
  6. Amos 2:2 sn The ram’s horn (used as a trumpet) was blown to signal the approaching battle.
  7. Amos 2:3 tn Heb “cut off” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); cf. NAB “root out,” NCV “bring to an end.”
  8. Amos 2:3 tn Heb “the leader [traditionally, “judge”] from her midst.”
  9. Amos 2:3 tn Heb “her”; the referent (Moab) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  10. Amos 2:3 tn Or “princes” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NLT); cf. TEV, CEV “leaders.”
  11. Amos 2:4 tn This is the same Hebrew term that is translated “crimes” in the previous oracles (see at 1:3). The change to “covenant transgressions” reflects the probability that the prophet is condemning the nation of Israel for violating stipulations of the Mosaic Law.
  12. Amos 2:4 tn Heb “Because of three violations of Judah, even because of four.”sn On the three…four style that introduces each of the judgment oracles of chaps. 1-2 see the note on the word “four” in 1:3.
  13. Amos 2:4 tn Heb “I will not bring it [or “him”] back.” The translation understands the pronominal object to refer to the decree of judgment that follows; the referent (the decree) has been specified in the translation for clarity. For another option see the note on the word “judgment” in 1:3.
  14. Amos 2:4 tn Or “instruction”; cf. NCV “teachings.”
  15. Amos 2:4 tn Heb “lies.” This may very well be a derogatory term for idols (perhaps also at Ps 40:4 ET [40:5 HT]). Elsewhere false gods are called “vanities” (Deut 32:21; 1 Kgs 16:13, 26) and a delusion (Isa 66:3). In no other prophetic passages, however, are they called “lies.” The term could refer to the deceptions of false prophets (note Ezek 13:6-9; cf. Hab 2:3). See F. I. Andersen and D. N. Freedman, Amos (AB), 301-6.
  16. Amos 2:4 tn Heb “after which their fathers walked.” The expression “to walk after” is an idiom meaning “to be loyal to.” See S. M. Paul, Amos (Hermeneia), Here the idolatry of the parents carried over to the children, who persisted in worshiping the idols to which their fathers were loyal.