Josiah Renews the Covenant(A)(B)(C)(D)

23 Then the king called together all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem. He went up to the temple of the Lord with the people of Judah, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the priests and the prophets—all the people from the least to the greatest. He read(E) in their hearing all the words of the Book of the Covenant,(F) which had been found in the temple of the Lord. The king stood by the pillar(G) and renewed the covenant(H) in the presence of the Lord—to follow(I) the Lord and keep his commands, statutes and decrees with all his heart and all his soul, thus confirming the words of the covenant written in this book. Then all the people pledged themselves to the covenant.

The king ordered Hilkiah the high priest, the priests next in rank and the doorkeepers(J) to remove(K) from the temple of the Lord all the articles made for Baal and Asherah and all the starry hosts. He burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of the Kidron Valley and took the ashes to Bethel. He did away with the idolatrous priests appointed by the kings of Judah to burn incense on the high places of the towns of Judah and on those around Jerusalem—those who burned incense(L) to Baal, to the sun and moon, to the constellations and to all the starry hosts.(M) He took the Asherah pole from the temple of the Lord to the Kidron Valley(N) outside Jerusalem and burned it there. He ground it to powder(O) and scattered the dust over the graves(P) of the common people.(Q) He also tore down the quarters of the male shrine prostitutes(R) that were in the temple of the Lord, the quarters where women did weaving for Asherah.

Josiah brought all the priests from the towns of Judah and desecrated the high places, from Geba(S) to Beersheba, where the priests had burned incense. He broke down the gateway at the entrance of the Gate of Joshua, the city governor, which was on the left of the city gate. Although the priests of the high places did not serve(T) at the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem, they ate unleavened bread with their fellow priests.

10 He desecrated Topheth,(U) which was in the Valley of Ben Hinnom,(V) so no one could use it to sacrifice their son(W) or daughter in the fire to Molek. 11 He removed from the entrance to the temple of the Lord the horses that the kings of Judah(X) had dedicated to the sun. They were in the court[a] near the room of an official named Nathan-Melek. Josiah then burned the chariots dedicated to the sun.(Y)

12 He pulled down(Z) the altars the kings of Judah had erected on the roof(AA) near the upper room of Ahaz, and the altars Manasseh had built in the two courts(AB) of the temple of the Lord. He removed them from there, smashed them to pieces and threw the rubble into the Kidron Valley.(AC) 13 The king also desecrated the high places that were east of Jerusalem on the south of the Hill of Corruption—the ones Solomon(AD) king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the vile goddess of the Sidonians, for Chemosh the vile god of Moab, and for Molek the detestable(AE) god of the people of Ammon.(AF) 14 Josiah smashed(AG) the sacred stones and cut down the Asherah poles and covered the sites with human bones.(AH)

15 Even the altar(AI) at Bethel, the high place made by Jeroboam(AJ) son of Nebat, who had caused Israel to sin—even that altar and high place he demolished. He burned the high place and ground it to powder, and burned the Asherah pole also. 16 Then Josiah(AK) looked around, and when he saw the tombs that were there on the hillside, he had the bones removed from them and burned on the altar to defile it, in accordance(AL) with the word of the Lord proclaimed by the man of God who foretold these things.

17 The king asked, “What is that tombstone I see?”

The people of the city said, “It marks the tomb of the man of God who came from Judah and pronounced against the altar of Bethel the very things you have done to it.”

18 “Leave it alone,” he said. “Don’t let anyone disturb his bones(AM).” So they spared his bones and those of the prophet(AN) who had come from Samaria.

19 Just as he had done at Bethel, Josiah removed all the shrines at the high places that the kings of Israel had built in the towns of Samaria and that had aroused the Lord’s anger. 20 Josiah slaughtered(AO) all the priests of those high places on the altars and burned human bones(AP) on them. Then he went back to Jerusalem.

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Footnotes

  1. 2 Kings 23:11 The meaning of the Hebrew for this word is uncertain.

29 Then the king called together all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem. 30 He went up to the temple of the Lord(A) with the people of Judah, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the priests and the Levites—all the people from the least to the greatest. He read in their hearing all the words of the Book of the Covenant, which had been found in the temple of the Lord. 31 The king stood by his pillar(B) and renewed the covenant(C) in the presence of the Lord—to follow(D) the Lord and keep his commands, statutes and decrees with all his heart and all his soul, and to obey the words of the covenant written in this book.

32 Then he had everyone in Jerusalem and Benjamin pledge themselves to it; the people of Jerusalem did this in accordance with the covenant of God, the God of their ancestors.

33 Josiah removed all the detestable(E) idols from all the territory belonging to the Israelites, and he had all who were present in Israel serve the Lord their God. As long as he lived, they did not fail to follow the Lord, the God of their ancestors.

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21 The king gave this order to all the people: “Celebrate the Passover(A) to the Lord your God, as it is written in this Book of the Covenant.”(B) 22 Neither in the days of the judges who led Israel nor in the days of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah had any such Passover been observed. 23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah, this Passover was celebrated to the Lord in Jerusalem.(C)

24 Furthermore, Josiah got rid of the mediums and spiritists,(D) the household gods,(E) the idols and all the other detestable(F) things seen in Judah and Jerusalem. This he did to fulfill the requirements of the law written in the book that Hilkiah the priest had discovered in the temple of the Lord. 25 Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him who turned(G) to the Lord as he did—with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his strength, in accordance with all the Law of Moses.(H)

26 Nevertheless, the Lord did not turn away from the heat of his fierce anger,(I) which burned against Judah because of all that Manasseh(J) had done to arouse his anger. 27 So the Lord said, “I will remove(K) Judah also from my presence(L) as I removed Israel, and I will reject(M) Jerusalem, the city I chose, and this temple, about which I said, ‘My Name shall be there.’[a]

28 As for the other events of Josiah’s reign, and all he did, are they not written in the book of the annals of the kings of Judah?

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Footnotes

  1. 2 Kings 23:27 1 Kings 8:29

Josiah Celebrates the Passover(A)

35 Josiah celebrated the Passover(B) to the Lord in Jerusalem, and the Passover lamb was slaughtered on the fourteenth day of the first month. He appointed the priests to their duties and encouraged them in the service of the Lord’s temple. He said to the Levites, who instructed(C) all Israel and who had been consecrated to the Lord: “Put the sacred ark in the temple that Solomon son of David king of Israel built. It is not to be carried about on your shoulders. Now serve the Lord your God and his people Israel. Prepare yourselves by families in your divisions,(D) according to the instructions written by David king of Israel and by his son Solomon.

“Stand in the holy place with a group of Levites for each subdivision of the families of your fellow Israelites, the lay people. Slaughter the Passover lambs, consecrate yourselves(E) and prepare the lambs for your fellow Israelites, doing what the Lord commanded through Moses.”

Josiah provided for all the lay people who were there a total of thirty thousand lambs and goats for the Passover offerings,(F) and also three thousand cattle—all from the king’s own possessions.(G)

His officials also contributed(H) voluntarily to the people and the priests and Levites. Hilkiah,(I) Zechariah and Jehiel, the officials in charge of God’s temple, gave the priests twenty-six hundred Passover offerings and three hundred cattle. Also Konaniah(J) along with Shemaiah and Nethanel, his brothers, and Hashabiah, Jeiel and Jozabad,(K) the leaders of the Levites, provided five thousand Passover offerings and five hundred head of cattle for the Levites.

10 The service was arranged and the priests stood in their places with the Levites in their divisions(L) as the king had ordered.(M) 11 The Passover lambs were slaughtered,(N) and the priests splashed against the altar the blood handed to them, while the Levites skinned the animals. 12 They set aside the burnt offerings to give them to the subdivisions of the families of the people to offer to the Lord, as it is written in the Book of Moses. They did the same with the cattle. 13 They roasted the Passover animals over the fire as prescribed,(O) and boiled the holy offerings in pots, caldrons and pans and served them quickly to all the people. 14 After this, they made preparations for themselves and for the priests, because the priests, the descendants of Aaron, were sacrificing the burnt offerings and the fat portions(P) until nightfall. So the Levites made preparations for themselves and for the Aaronic priests.

15 The musicians,(Q) the descendants of Asaph, were in the places prescribed by David, Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun the king’s seer. The gatekeepers at each gate did not need to leave their posts, because their fellow Levites made the preparations for them.

16 So at that time the entire service of the Lord was carried out for the celebration of the Passover and the offering of burnt offerings on the altar of the Lord, as King Josiah had ordered. 17 The Israelites who were present celebrated the Passover at that time and observed the Festival of Unleavened Bread for seven days. 18 The Passover had not been observed like this in Israel since the days of the prophet Samuel; and none of the kings of Israel had ever celebrated such a Passover as did Josiah, with the priests, the Levites and all Judah and Israel who were there with the people of Jerusalem. 19 This Passover was celebrated in the eighteenth year of Josiah’s reign.

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A prophecy(A) concerning Nineveh.(B) The book of the vision(C) of Nahum the Elkoshite.

The Lord’s Anger Against Nineveh

The Lord is a jealous(D) and avenging God;
    the Lord takes vengeance(E) and is filled with wrath.
The Lord takes vengeance on his foes
    and vents his wrath against his enemies.(F)
The Lord is slow to anger(G) but great in power;
    the Lord will not leave the guilty unpunished.(H)
His way is in the whirlwind(I) and the storm,(J)
    and clouds(K) are the dust of his feet.
He rebukes(L) the sea and dries it up;(M)
    he makes all the rivers run dry.
Bashan and Carmel(N) wither
    and the blossoms of Lebanon fade.
The mountains quake(O) before him
    and the hills melt away.(P)
The earth trembles(Q) at his presence,
    the world and all who live in it.(R)
Who can withstand(S) his indignation?
    Who can endure(T) his fierce anger?(U)
His wrath is poured out like fire;(V)
    the rocks are shattered(W) before him.

The Lord is good,(X)
    a refuge in times of trouble.(Y)
He cares for(Z) those who trust in him,(AA)
    but with an overwhelming flood(AB)
he will make an end of Nineveh;
    he will pursue his foes into the realm of darkness.

Whatever they plot(AC) against the Lord
    he will bring[a] to an end;
    trouble will not come a second time.
10 They will be entangled among thorns(AD)
    and drunk(AE) from their wine;
    they will be consumed like dry stubble.[b](AF)
11 From you, Nineveh, has one come forth
    who plots evil against the Lord
    and devises wicked plans.

12 This is what the Lord says:

“Although they have allies and are numerous,
    they will be destroyed(AG) and pass away.
Although I have afflicted you, Judah,
    I will afflict you no more.(AH)
13 Now I will break their yoke(AI) from your neck
    and tear your shackles away.”(AJ)

14 The Lord has given a command concerning you, Nineveh:
    “You will have no descendants to bear your name.(AK)
I will destroy the images(AL) and idols
    that are in the temple of your gods.
I will prepare your grave,(AM)
    for you are vile.”

15 Look, there on the mountains,
    the feet of one who brings good news,(AN)
    who proclaims peace!(AO)
Celebrate your festivals,(AP) Judah,
    and fulfill your vows.
No more will the wicked invade you;(AQ)
    they will be completely destroyed.[c]

Nineveh to Fall

[d]An attacker(AR) advances against you, Nineveh.
    Guard the fortress,
    watch the road,
    brace yourselves,
    marshal all your strength!

The Lord will restore(AS) the splendor(AT) of Jacob
    like the splendor of Israel,
though destroyers have laid them waste
    and have ruined their vines.

The shields of the soldiers are red;
    the warriors are clad in scarlet.(AU)
The metal on the chariots flashes
    on the day they are made ready;
    the spears of juniper are brandished.[e]
The chariots(AV) storm through the streets,
    rushing back and forth through the squares.
They look like flaming torches;
    they dart about like lightning.

Nineveh summons her picked troops,
    yet they stumble(AW) on their way.
They dash to the city wall;
    the protective shield is put in place.
The river gates(AX) are thrown open
    and the palace collapses.
It is decreed[f] that Nineveh
    be exiled and carried away.
Her female slaves moan(AY) like doves
    and beat on their breasts.(AZ)
Nineveh is like a pool
    whose water is draining away.
“Stop! Stop!” they cry,
    but no one turns back.
Plunder the silver!
    Plunder the gold!
The supply is endless,
    the wealth from all its treasures!
10 She is pillaged, plundered, stripped!
    Hearts melt,(BA) knees give way,
    bodies tremble, every face grows pale.(BB)

11 Where now is the lions’ den,(BC)
    the place where they fed their young,
where the lion and lioness went,
    and the cubs, with nothing to fear?
12 The lion killed(BD) enough for his cubs
    and strangled the prey for his mate,
filling his lairs(BE) with the kill
    and his dens with the prey.(BF)

13 “I am against(BG) you,”
    declares the Lord Almighty.
“I will burn up your chariots in smoke,(BH)
    and the sword(BI) will devour your young lions.
    I will leave you no prey on the earth.
The voices of your messengers
    will no longer be heard.”(BJ)

Woe to Nineveh

Woe to the city of blood,(BK)
    full of lies,(BL)
full of plunder,
    never without victims!
The crack of whips,
    the clatter of wheels,
galloping horses
    and jolting chariots!
Charging cavalry,
    flashing swords
    and glittering spears!
Many casualties,
    piles of dead,
bodies without number,
    people stumbling over the corpses(BM)
all because of the wanton lust of a prostitute,
    alluring, the mistress of sorceries,(BN)
who enslaved nations by her prostitution(BO)
    and peoples by her witchcraft.

“I am against(BP) you,” declares the Lord Almighty.
    “I will lift your skirts(BQ) over your face.
I will show the nations your nakedness(BR)
    and the kingdoms your shame.
I will pelt you with filth,(BS)
    I will treat you with contempt(BT)
    and make you a spectacle.(BU)
All who see you will flee(BV) from you and say,
    ‘Nineveh(BW) is in ruins(BX)—who will mourn for her?’(BY)
    Where can I find anyone to comfort(BZ) you?”

Are you better than(CA) Thebes,(CB)
    situated on the Nile,(CC)
    with water around her?
The river was her defense,
    the waters her wall.
Cush[g](CD) and Egypt were her boundless strength;
    Put(CE) and Libya(CF) were among her allies.
10 Yet she was taken captive(CG)
    and went into exile.
Her infants were dashed(CH) to pieces
    at every street corner.
Lots(CI) were cast for her nobles,
    and all her great men were put in chains.(CJ)
11 You too will become drunk;(CK)
    you will go into hiding(CL)
    and seek refuge from the enemy.

12 All your fortresses are like fig trees
    with their first ripe fruit;(CM)
when they are shaken,
    the figs(CN) fall into the mouth of the eater.
13 Look at your troops—
    they are all weaklings.(CO)
The gates(CP) of your land
    are wide open to your enemies;
    fire has consumed the bars of your gates.(CQ)

14 Draw water for the siege,(CR)
    strengthen your defenses!(CS)
Work the clay,
    tread the mortar,
    repair the brickwork!
15 There the fire(CT) will consume you;
    the sword(CU) will cut you down—
    they will devour you like a swarm of locusts.
Multiply like grasshoppers,
    multiply like locusts!(CV)
16 You have increased the number of your merchants
    till they are more numerous than the stars in the sky,
but like locusts(CW) they strip the land
    and then fly away.
17 Your guards are like locusts,(CX)
    your officials like swarms of locusts
    that settle in the walls on a cold day—
but when the sun appears they fly away,
    and no one knows where.

18 King of Assyria, your shepherds[h] slumber;(CY)
    your nobles lie down to rest.(CZ)
Your people are scattered(DA) on the mountains
    with no one to gather them.
19 Nothing can heal you;(DB)
    your wound is fatal.
All who hear the news about you
    clap their hands(DC) at your fall,
for who has not felt
    your endless cruelty?(DD)

Footnotes

  1. Nahum 1:9 Or What do you foes plot against the Lord? / He will bring it
  2. Nahum 1:10 The meaning of the Hebrew for this verse is uncertain.
  3. Nahum 1:15 In Hebrew texts this verse (1:15) is numbered 2:1.
  4. Nahum 2:1 In Hebrew texts 2:1-13 is numbered 2:2-14.
  5. Nahum 2:3 Hebrew; Septuagint and Syriac ready; / the horsemen rush to and fro.
  6. Nahum 2:7 The meaning of the Hebrew for this word is uncertain.
  7. Nahum 3:9 That is, the upper Nile region
  8. Nahum 3:18 That is, rulers

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