Jehoahaz King of Judah(A)

31 Jehoahaz(B) was twenty-three years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. His mother’s name was Hamutal(C) daughter of Jeremiah; she was from Libnah. 32 He did evil(D) in the eyes of the Lord, just as his predecessors had done. 33 Pharaoh Necho put him in chains at Riblah(E) in the land of Hamath(F) so that he might not reign in Jerusalem, and he imposed on Judah a levy of a hundred talents[a] of silver and a talent[b] of gold. 34 Pharaoh Necho made Eliakim(G) son of Josiah king in place of his father Josiah and changed Eliakim’s name to Jehoiakim. But he took Jehoahaz and carried him off to Egypt, and there he died.(H) 35 Jehoiakim paid Pharaoh Necho the silver and gold he demanded. In order to do so, he taxed the land and exacted the silver and gold from the people of the land according to their assessments.(I)

Jehoiakim King of Judah(J)

36 Jehoiakim(K) was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem eleven years. His mother’s name was Zebidah daughter of Pedaiah; she was from Rumah. 37 And he did evil(L) in the eyes of the Lord, just as his predecessors had done.

24 During Jehoiakim’s reign, Nebuchadnezzar(M) king of Babylon invaded(N) the land, and Jehoiakim became his vassal for three years. But then he turned against Nebuchadnezzar and rebelled.(O) The Lord sent Babylonian,[c](P) Aramean,(Q) Moabite and Ammonite raiders(R) against him to destroy(S) Judah, in accordance with the word of the Lord proclaimed by his servants the prophets.(T) Surely these things happened to Judah according to the Lord’s command,(U) in order to remove them from his presence(V) because of the sins of Manasseh(W) and all he had done, including the shedding of innocent blood.(X) For he had filled Jerusalem with innocent blood, and the Lord was not willing to forgive.(Y)

As for the other events of Jehoiakim’s reign,(Z) and all he did, are they not written in the book of the annals of the kings of Judah? Jehoiakim rested(AA) with his ancestors. And Jehoiachin(AB) his son succeeded him as king.

The king of Egypt(AC) did not march out from his own country again, because the king of Babylon(AD) had taken all his territory, from the Wadi of Egypt to the Euphrates River.

Jehoiachin King of Judah(AE)

Jehoiachin(AF) was eighteen years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. His mother’s name was Nehushta(AG) daughter of Elnathan; she was from Jerusalem. He did evil(AH) in the eyes of the Lord, just as his father had done.

10 At that time the officers of Nebuchadnezzar(AI) king of Babylon advanced on Jerusalem and laid siege to it, 11 and Nebuchadnezzar himself came up to the city while his officers were besieging it. 12 Jehoiachin king of Judah, his mother, his attendants, his nobles and his officials all surrendered(AJ) to him.

In the eighth year of the reign of the king of Babylon, he took Jehoiachin prisoner. 13 As the Lord had declared,(AK) Nebuchadnezzar removed the treasures(AL) from the temple of the Lord and from the royal palace, and cut up the gold articles(AM) that Solomon(AN) king of Israel had made for the temple of the Lord. 14 He carried all Jerusalem into exile:(AO) all the officers and fighting men,(AP) and all the skilled workers and artisans—a total of ten thousand. Only the poorest(AQ) people of the land were left.

15 Nebuchadnezzar took Jehoiachin(AR) captive to Babylon. He also took from Jerusalem to Babylon the king’s mother,(AS) his wives, his officials and the prominent people(AT) of the land. 16 The king of Babylon also deported to Babylon the entire force of seven thousand fighting men, strong and fit for war, and a thousand skilled workers and artisans.(AU) 17 He made Mattaniah, Jehoiachin’s uncle, king in his place and changed his name to Zedekiah.(AV)

Zedekiah King of Judah(AW)

18 Zedekiah(AX) was twenty-one years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem eleven years. His mother’s name was Hamutal(AY) daughter of Jeremiah; she was from Libnah. 19 He did evil(AZ) in the eyes of the Lord, just as Jehoiakim had done. 20 It was because of the Lord’s anger that all this happened to Jerusalem and Judah, and in the end he thrust(BA) them from his presence.(BB)

The Fall of Jerusalem(BC)(BD)(BE)

Now Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.

25 So in the ninth(BF) year of Zedekiah’s reign, on the tenth day of the tenth month, Nebuchadnezzar(BG) king of Babylon marched against Jerusalem with his whole army. He encamped outside the city and built siege works(BH) all around it. The city was kept under siege until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah.

By the ninth day of the fourth[d] month the famine(BI) in the city had become so severe that there was no food for the people to eat. Then the city wall was broken through,(BJ) and the whole army fled at night through the gate between the two walls near the king’s garden, though the Babylonians[e] were surrounding(BK) the city. They fled toward the Arabah,[f] but the Babylonian[g] army pursued the king and overtook him in the plains of Jericho. All his soldiers were separated from him and scattered,(BL) and he was captured.(BM)

He was taken to the king of Babylon at Riblah,(BN) where sentence was pronounced on him. They killed the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes. Then they put out his eyes, bound him with bronze shackles and took him to Babylon.(BO)

On the seventh day of the fifth month, in the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan commander of the imperial guard, an official of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. He set fire(BP) to the temple of the Lord, the royal palace and all the houses of Jerusalem. Every important building he burned down.(BQ) 10 The whole Babylonian army under the commander of the imperial guard broke down the walls(BR) around Jerusalem. 11 Nebuzaradan the commander of the guard carried into exile(BS) the people who remained in the city, along with the rest of the populace and those who had deserted to the king of Babylon.(BT) 12 But the commander left behind some of the poorest people(BU) of the land to work the vineyards and fields.

13 The Babylonians broke(BV) up the bronze pillars, the movable stands and the bronze Sea that were at the temple of the Lord and they carried the bronze to Babylon. 14 They also took away the pots, shovels, wick trimmers, dishes(BW) and all the bronze articles(BX) used in the temple service. 15 The commander of the imperial guard took away the censers and sprinkling bowls—all that were made of pure gold or silver.(BY)

16 The bronze from the two pillars, the Sea and the movable stands, which Solomon had made for the temple of the Lord, was more than could be weighed. 17 Each pillar(BZ) was eighteen cubits[h] high. The bronze capital on top of one pillar was three cubits[i] high and was decorated with a network and pomegranates of bronze all around. The other pillar, with its network, was similar.

18 The commander of the guard took as prisoners Seraiah(CA) the chief priest, Zephaniah(CB) the priest next in rank and the three doorkeepers.(CC) 19 Of those still in the city, he took the officer in charge of the fighting men, and five royal advisers. He also took the secretary who was chief officer in charge of conscripting the people of the land and sixty of the conscripts who were found in the city. 20 Nebuzaradan the commander took them all and brought them to the king of Babylon at Riblah. 21 There at Riblah,(CD) in the land of Hamath, the king had them executed.(CE)

So Judah went into captivity,(CF) away from her land.(CG)

22 Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon appointed Gedaliah(CH) son of Ahikam,(CI) the son of Shaphan, to be over the people he had left behind in Judah. 23 When all the army officers and their men heard that the king of Babylon had appointed Gedaliah as governor, they came to Gedaliah at Mizpah—Ishmael son of Nethaniah, Johanan son of Kareah, Seraiah son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, Jaazaniah the son of the Maakathite, and their men. 24 Gedaliah took an oath to reassure them and their men. “Do not be afraid of the Babylonian officials,” he said. “Settle down in the land and serve the king of Babylon, and it will go well with you.”

25 In the seventh month, however, Ishmael son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, who was of royal blood, came with ten men and assassinated(CJ) Gedaliah and also the men of Judah and the Babylonians who were with him at Mizpah.(CK) 26 At this, all the people from the least to the greatest, together with the army officers, fled to Egypt(CL) for fear of the Babylonians.

Jehoiachin Released(CM)

27 In the thirty-seventh year of the exile of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the year Awel-Marduk became king of Babylon, he released Jehoiachin(CN) king of Judah from prison. He did this on the twenty-seventh day of the twelfth month. 28 He spoke kindly(CO) to him and gave him a seat of honor(CP) higher than those of the other kings who were with him in Babylon. 29 So Jehoiachin put aside his prison clothes and for the rest of his life ate regularly at the king’s table.(CQ) 30 Day by day the king gave Jehoiachin a regular allowance as long as he lived.(CR)


  1. 2 Kings 23:33 That is, about 3 3/4 tons or about 3.4 metric tons
  2. 2 Kings 23:33 That is, about 75 pounds or about 34 kilograms
  3. 2 Kings 24:2 Or Chaldean
  4. 2 Kings 25:3 Probable reading of the original Hebrew text (see Jer. 52:6); Masoretic Text does not have fourth.
  5. 2 Kings 25:4 Or Chaldeans; also in verses 13, 25 and 26
  6. 2 Kings 25:4 Or the Jordan Valley
  7. 2 Kings 25:5 Or Chaldean; also in verses 10 and 24
  8. 2 Kings 25:17 That is, about 27 feet or about 8.1 meters
  9. 2 Kings 25:17 That is, about 4 1/2 feet or about 1.4 meters

17 “When I returned to Jerusalem(A) and was praying at the temple, I fell into a trance(B) 18 and saw the Lord speaking to me. ‘Quick!’ he said. ‘Leave Jerusalem immediately, because the people here will not accept your testimony about me.’

19 “‘Lord,’ I replied, ‘these people know that I went from one synagogue to another to imprison(C) and beat(D) those who believe in you. 20 And when the blood of your martyr[a] Stephen was shed, I stood there giving my approval and guarding the clothes of those who were killing him.’(E)

21 “Then the Lord said to me, ‘Go; I will send you far away to the Gentiles.’ (F)

Paul the Roman Citizen

22 The crowd listened to Paul until he said this. Then they raised their voices and shouted, “Rid the earth of him!(G) He’s not fit to live!”(H)

23 As they were shouting and throwing off their cloaks(I) and flinging dust into the air,(J) 24 the commander ordered that Paul be taken into the barracks.(K) He directed(L) that he be flogged and interrogated in order to find out why the people were shouting at him like this. 25 As they stretched him out to flog him, Paul said to the centurion standing there, “Is it legal for you to flog a Roman citizen who hasn’t even been found guilty?”(M)

26 When the centurion heard this, he went to the commander and reported it. “What are you going to do?” he asked. “This man is a Roman citizen.”

27 The commander went to Paul and asked, “Tell me, are you a Roman citizen?”

“Yes, I am,” he answered.

28 Then the commander said, “I had to pay a lot of money for my citizenship.”

“But I was born a citizen,” Paul replied.

29 Those who were about to interrogate him(N) withdrew immediately. The commander himself was alarmed when he realized that he had put Paul, a Roman citizen,(O) in chains.(P)

Paul Before the Sanhedrin

30 The commander wanted to find out exactly why Paul was being accused by the Jews.(Q) So the next day he released him(R) and ordered the chief priests and all the members of the Sanhedrin(S) to assemble. Then he brought Paul and had him stand before them.

23 Paul looked straight at the Sanhedrin(T) and said, “My brothers,(U) I have fulfilled my duty to God in all good conscience(V) to this day.” At this the high priest Ananias(W) ordered those standing near Paul to strike him on the mouth.(X) Then Paul said to him, “God will strike you, you whitewashed wall!(Y) You sit there to judge me according to the law, yet you yourself violate the law by commanding that I be struck!”(Z)

Those who were standing near Paul said, “How dare you insult God’s high priest!”

Paul replied, “Brothers, I did not realize that he was the high priest; for it is written: ‘Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.’[b](AA)

Then Paul, knowing that some of them were Sadducees(AB) and the others Pharisees, called out in the Sanhedrin, “My brothers,(AC) I am a Pharisee,(AD) descended from Pharisees. I stand on trial because of the hope of the resurrection of the dead.”(AE) When he said this, a dispute broke out between the Pharisees and the Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. (The Sadducees say that there is no resurrection,(AF) and that there are neither angels nor spirits, but the Pharisees believe all these things.)

There was a great uproar, and some of the teachers of the law who were Pharisees(AG) stood up and argued vigorously. “We find nothing wrong with this man,”(AH) they said. “What if a spirit or an angel has spoken to him?”(AI) 10 The dispute became so violent that the commander was afraid Paul would be torn to pieces by them. He ordered the troops to go down and take him away from them by force and bring him into the barracks.(AJ)


  1. Acts 22:20 Or witness
  2. Acts 23:5 Exodus 22:28

Psalm 2

Why do the nations conspire[a]
    and the peoples plot(A) in vain?
The kings(B) of the earth rise up
    and the rulers band together
    against the Lord and against his anointed,(C) saying,
“Let us break their chains(D)
    and throw off their shackles.”(E)

The One enthroned(F) in heaven laughs;(G)
    the Lord scoffs at them.
He rebukes them in his anger(H)
    and terrifies them in his wrath,(I) saying,
“I have installed my king(J)
    on Zion,(K) my holy mountain.(L)

I will proclaim the Lord’s decree:

He said to me, “You are my son;(M)
    today I have become your father.(N)
Ask me,
    and I will make the nations(O) your inheritance,(P)
    the ends of the earth(Q) your possession.
You will break them with a rod of iron[b];(R)
    you will dash them to pieces(S) like pottery.(T)

10 Therefore, you kings, be wise;(U)
    be warned, you rulers(V) of the earth.
11 Serve the Lord with fear(W)
    and celebrate his rule(X) with trembling.(Y)
12 Kiss his son,(Z) or he will be angry
    and your way will lead to your destruction,
for his wrath(AA) can flare up in a moment.
    Blessed(AB) are all who take refuge(AC) in him.

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  1. Psalm 2:1 Hebrew; Septuagint rage
  2. Psalm 2:9 Or will rule them with an iron scepter (see Septuagint and Syriac)

13 To answer before listening—
    that is folly and shame.(A)

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