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2 Samuel 24 New English Translation (NET Bible)

David Displeases the Lord by Taking a Census

24 The Lord’s anger again raged against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, “Go count Israel and Judah.”[a] The king told Joab, the general in command of his army, “Go through all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beer Sheba and muster the army, so I may know the size of the army.”

Joab replied to the king, “May the Lord your God make the army a hundred times larger right before the eyes of my lord the king! But why does my master the king want to do this?”

But the king’s edict stood, despite the objections of[b] Joab and the leaders of the army. So Joab and the leaders of the army left the king’s presence in order to muster the Israelite army.

They crossed the Jordan and camped at Aroer, on the south side of the city, at[c] the wadi of Gad, near Jazer. Then they went on to Gilead and to the region of Tahtim Hodshi, coming to Dan Jaan and on around to Sidon. Then they went to the fortress of Tyre and all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites. Then they went on to the Negev of Judah, to Beer Sheba. They went through all the land and after nine months and twenty days came back to Jerusalem.

Joab reported the number of warriors[d] to the king. In Israel there were 800,000 sword-wielding warriors, and in Judah there were 500,000 soldiers.

10 David felt guilty[e] after he had numbered the army. David said to the Lord, “I have sinned greatly by doing this! Now, O Lord, please remove the guilt of your servant, for I have acted very foolishly.”

11 When David got up the next morning, the Lord’s message had already come to the prophet Gad, David’s seer: 12 “Go, tell David, ‘This is what the Lord has said: I am offering you three forms of judgment. Pick one of them and I will carry it out against you.’”

13 Gad went to David and told him, “Shall seven[f] years of famine come upon your land? Or shall you flee for three months from your enemies with them in hot pursuit? Or shall there be three days of plague in your land? Now decide[g] what I should tell the one who sent me.” 14 David said to Gad, “I am very upset! I prefer that we be attacked by the Lord, for his mercy is great; I do not want to be attacked by human hands!”[h]

15 So the Lord sent a plague through Israel from the morning until the completion of the appointed time, and 70,000 people died from Dan to Beer Sheba. 16 When the angel[i] extended his hand to destroy Jerusalem, the Lord relented from his judgment.[j] He told the angel who was killing the people, “That’s enough! Stop now!”[k] (Now the angel of the Lord was near the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite.)

17 When he saw the angel who was destroying the people, David said to the Lord, “Look, it is I who have sinned and done this evil thing! As for these sheep—what have they done? Attack me and my family.”[l]

David Acquires a Threshing Floor and Constructs an Altar There

18 So Gad went to David that day and told him, “Go up and build an altar for the Lord on the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite.” 19 So David went up as Gad instructed him to do, according to the Lord’s instructions.

20 When Araunah looked out and saw the king and his servants approaching him, he[m] went out and bowed to the king with his face[n] to the ground. 21 Araunah said, “Why has my lord the king come to his servant?” David replied, “To buy from you the threshing floor so I can build an altar for the Lord, so that the plague may be removed from the people.” 22 Araunah told David, “My lord the king may take whatever he wishes[o] and offer it. Look! Here are oxen for burnt offerings, and threshing sledges[p] and harnesses[q] for wood. 23 I, the servant of my lord[r] the king, give it all to the king!” Araunah also told the king, “May the Lord your God show you favor!” 24 But the king said to Araunah, “No, I insist on buying it from you! I will not offer to the Lord my God burnt sacrifices that cost me nothing.”

So David bought the threshing floor and the oxen for fifty pieces of silver.[s] 25 Then David built an altar for the Lord there and offered burnt sacrifices and peace offerings. And the Lord accepted prayers for the land, and the plague was removed from Israel.


  1. 2 Samuel 24:1 sn The parallel text in 1 Chr 21:1 says, “An adversary opposed Israel, inciting David to count how many warriors Israel had.” The Samuel version gives an underlying theological perspective, while the Chronicler simply describes what happened from a human perspective. The adversary in 1 Chr 21:1 is likely a human enemy, probably a nearby nation whose hostility against Israel pressured David into numbering the people so he could assess his military strength. See the note at 1 Chr 21:1.
  2. 2 Samuel 24:4 tn Heb “and the word of the king was stronger than.”
  3. 2 Samuel 24:5 tn Heb “in the middle of.”
  4. 2 Samuel 24:9 tn Heb “and Joab gave the number of the numbering of the people.”
  5. 2 Samuel 24:10 tn Heb “and the heart of David struck him.”
  6. 2 Samuel 24:13 tc The LXX has here “three” rather than “seven,” and is followed by NAB, NIV, NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT. See 1 Chr 21:12.
  7. 2 Samuel 24:13 tn Heb “now know and see.”
  8. 2 Samuel 24:14 tn Heb “There is great distress to me. Let us fall into the hand of the Lord, for great is his mercy, but into the hand of man let me not fall.”
  9. 2 Samuel 24:16 tn Heb “messenger.”
  10. 2 Samuel 24:16 tn Heb “concerning the calamity.”
  11. 2 Samuel 24:16 tn Heb “Now, drop your hand.”
  12. 2 Samuel 24:17 tn Heb “let your hand be against me and against the house of my father.”
  13. 2 Samuel 24:20 tn Heb “Araunah.” The name has been replaced in the translation by the pronoun (“he”) for stylistic reasons.
  14. 2 Samuel 24:20 tn Heb “nostrils.”
  15. 2 Samuel 24:22 tn Heb “what is good in his eyes.”
  16. 2 Samuel 24:22 sn Threshing sledges were heavy boards used in ancient times for loosening grain from husks. On the bottom sides of these boards sharp stones were embedded, and the boards were then dragged across the grain on a threshing floor by an ox or donkey.
  17. 2 Samuel 24:22 tn Heb “the equipment of the oxen.”
  18. 2 Samuel 24:23 tc The Hebrew text is difficult here. The translation reads עֶבֶד אֲדֹנִי (ʿeved ʾadoni, “the servant of my lord”) rather than the MT’s אֲרַוְנָה (ʾAravnah). In normal court etiquette a subject would not use his own name in this way, but would more likely refer to himself in the third person. The MT probably first sustained loss of עֶבֶד (ʿeved, “servant”), leading to confusion of the word for “my lord” with the name of the Jebusite referred to here.
  19. 2 Samuel 24:24 tn Heb “fifty shekels of silver.” This would have been about 20 ounces (568 grams) of silver by weight.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 29 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 29[a]

A psalm of David.

29 Acknowledge the Lord, you heavenly beings,[b]
acknowledge the Lord’s majesty and power.[c]
Acknowledge the majesty of the Lord’s reputation.[d]
Worship the Lord in holy attire.[e]
The Lord’s shout is heard over the water;[f]
the majestic God thunders,[g]
the Lord appears over the surging water.[h]
The Lord’s shout is powerful,[i]
the Lord’s shout is majestic.[j]
The Lord’s shout breaks[k] the cedars,
the Lord shatters[l] the cedars of Lebanon.[m]
He makes them skip like a calf,
Lebanon and Sirion[n] like a young ox.[o]
The Lord’s shout strikes[p] with flaming fire.[q]
The Lord’s shout shakes[r] the wilderness,
the Lord shakes the wilderness of Kadesh.[s]
The Lord’s shout bends[t] the large trees[u]
and strips[v] the leaves from the forests.[w]
Everyone in his temple says, “Majestic!”[x]
10 The Lord sits enthroned over the engulfing waters,[y]
the Lord sits enthroned[z] as the eternal king.
11 The Lord gives[aa] his people strength;[ab]
the Lord grants his people security.[ac]


  1. Psalm 29:1 sn Psalm 29. In this hymn of praise the psalmist calls upon the heavenly assembly to acknowledge the royal splendor of the Lord. He describes the Lord’s devastating power as revealed in the thunderstorm and affirms that the Lord exerts this awesome might on behalf of his people. In its original context the psalm was a bold polemic against the Canaanite storm god Baal, for it affirms that the Lord is the real king who controls the elements of the storm, contrary to pagan belief. See R. B. Chisholm, Jr., “The Polemic against Baalism in Israel’s Early History and Literature,” BSac 150 (1994): 280-82.
  2. Psalm 29:1 tc Heb “sons of gods,” or “sons of God.” Though אֵלִים (ʾelim) is vocalized as a plural form (“gods”) in the MT, it is likely that the final mem is actually enclitic, rather than a plural marker. In this case one may read “God.” Some, following a Qumran text and the LXX, also propose the phrase occurred in the original text of Deut 32:8.tn The phrase בְּנֵי אֵלִים (bene ʾelim, “sons of gods” or “sons of God”) occurs only here and in Ps 89:6 (89:7 HT). In Ps 89 the “sons of gods/God” are also called “the assembly of the holy ones” and “council of the holy ones.” The heavenly assembly, comprised of so-called “angels” and other supernatural beings, appears to be in view. See Job 5:1; 15:15 and Zech 14:5, where these supernatural beings are referred to as “holy ones.” In Canaanite mythological texts the divine council of the high god El is referred to as “the sons of El.” The OT apparently borrows the Canaanite phrase and applies it to the supernatural beings that surround the heavenly throne.
  3. Psalm 29:1 tn Or “ascribe to the Lord glory and strength.”
  4. Psalm 29:2 tn Heb “ascribe to the Lord the glory of his name.” The Hebrew term שֵׁם (shem, “name”) refers here to the Lord’s reputation. (The English term “name” is often used the same way.)
  5. Psalm 29:2 tn That is, properly dressed for the occasion.
  6. Psalm 29:3 tn Heb “the voice of the Lord [is] over the water.” As the next line makes clear, the “voice of the Lord” is here the thunder that accompanies a violent storm. The psalm depicts the Lord in the role of a warrior-king, so the thunder is his battle cry, as it were.
  7. Psalm 29:3 tn The Hebrew perfect verbal form is probably descriptive. In dramatic fashion the psalmist portrays the Lord coming in the storm to do battle with his enemies and to vindicate his people.
  8. Psalm 29:3 tn Traditionally “many waters.” The geographical references in the psalm (Lebanon, Sirion, Kadesh) suggest this is a reference to the Mediterranean Sea (see Ezek 26:19; 27:26). The psalmist describes a powerful storm moving in from the sea and sweeping over the mountainous areas north of Israel. The “surging waters” may symbolize the hostile enemies of God who seek to destroy his people (see Pss 18:17; 32:6; 77:20; 93:4; 144:7; Isa 17:13; Jer 51:55; Ezek 26:19; Hab 3:15). In this case the Lord is depicted as elevated above and sovereign over the raging waters.
  9. Psalm 29:4 tn Heb “the voice of the Lord [is] accompanied by strength.”
  10. Psalm 29:4 tn Heb “the voice of the Lord [is] accompanied by majesty.”
  11. Psalm 29:5 tn The Hebrew participial form draws attention to the durative nature of the action being described.
  12. Psalm 29:5 tn The prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) consecutive here and in v. 6a carry on the descriptive function of the preceding participle (see GKC 329 §111.u). The verb שָׁבַר (shavar) appears in the Qal in the first line of the verse, and in the Piel in the second line. The verb, which means “break” in the Qal, appears thirty-six times in the Piel, always with multiple objects (the object is either a collective singular or grammatically plural or dual form). The Piel may highlight the repetition of the pluralative action, or it may suggest an intensification of action, indicating repeated action comprising a whole, perhaps with the nuance “break again and again, break in pieces.” Another option is to understand the form as resultative: “make broken” (see IBHS 404-7 §24.3).
  13. Psalm 29:5 sn The cedars of the Lebanon forest were well-known in ancient Israel for their immense size. Here they may symbolize the arrogant enemies of God (see Isa 2:12-13).
  14. Psalm 29:6 sn Sirion is another name for Mount Hermon (Deut 3:9).
  15. Psalm 29:6 sn Lebanon and Sirion are compared to frisky young animals (a calf…a young ox) who skip and jump. The thunderous shout of the Lord is so powerful, one can see the very mountains shake on the horizon.
  16. Psalm 29:7 tn The verb normally means “to hew [stone or wood],” or “to hew out.” In Hos 6:5 it seems to mean “cut in pieces,” “knock down,” or perhaps “hack” (see F. I. Andersen and D. N. Freedman, Hosea [AB], 428). The Ugaritic cognate can mean “assault.” In v. 7 the verb seems to have a similar meaning, perhaps “attack, strike.” The phrase “flames of fire” is an adverbial accusative; the Lord’s shout is accompanied by “flames of fire,” that is, lightning bolts.
  17. Psalm 29:7 sn The Lord’s shout strikes with flaming fire. The short line has invited textual emendation, but its distinct, brief form may highlight the statement, which serves as the axis of a chiastic structure encompassing vv. 5-9: (A) the Lord’s shout destroys the forest (v. 5); (B) the Lord’s shout shakes the terrain (v. 6); (C) the Lord’s shout is accompanied by destructive lightning (v. 7); (B´) the Lord’s shout shakes the terrain (v. 8); (A´) the Lord’s shout destroys the forest (v. 9).
  18. Psalm 29:8 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal forms are descriptive in function; the psalmist depicts the action as underway.
  19. Psalm 29:8 sn Kadesh. The references to Lebanon and Sirion in v. 6 suggest this is a reference to the northern Kadesh, located north of Damascus, not the southern Kadesh mentioned so often in the OT. See M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:178.
  20. Psalm 29:9 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form is descriptive in function; the psalmist depicts the action as underway.
  21. Psalm 29:9 tc Heb “the deer.” Preserving this reading, some translate the preceding verb, “causes [the deer] to give premature birth” (cf. NEB, NASB). But the Polel of חוּל/חִיל (khul/khil) means “give birth,” not “cause to give birth,” and the statement “the Lord’s shout gives birth to deer” is absurd. In light of the parallelism (note “forests” in the next line) and v. 5, it is preferable to emend אַיָּלוֹת (ʾayyalot, “deer”) to אֵילוֹת (ʾelot, “large trees”) understanding the latter as an alternate form of the usual plural form אַיָּלִים (ʾayyalim).
  22. Psalm 29:9 tn The verb is used in Joel 1:7 of locusts stripping the leaves from a tree. The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the descriptive function of the preceding imperfect. See GKC 329 §111.t.
  23. Psalm 29:9 tn The usual form of the plural of יַעַר (yaʿar, “forest”) is יְעָרִים (yeʿarim). For this reason some propose an emendation to יְעָלוֹת (ye’alot, “female mountain goats”) which would fit nicely in the parallelism with “deer” (cf. NEB “brings kids early to birth”). In this case one would have to understand the verb חָשַׂף (khasaf) to mean “cause premature birth,” an otherwise unattested homonym of the more common חָשַׂף (“strip bare”).sn The Lord’s thunderous shout is accompanied by high winds which damage the trees of the forest.
  24. Psalm 29:9 tn Heb “In his temple, all of it says, ‘Glory.’”
  25. Psalm 29:10 tn The noun מַּבּוּל (mabbul, “flood”) appears only here and in Gen 6-11, where it refers to the Noahic flood. Some see a reference to that event here. The presence of the article (perhaps indicating uniqueness) and the switch to the perfect verbal form (which could be taken as describing a past situation) might support this. However, the immediate context indicates that the referent of מַּבּוּל is the “surging waters” mentioned in v. 3. The article indicates waters that are definite in the mind of the speaker and the perfect is probably descriptive in function, like “thunders” in v. 3. However, even though the historical flood is not the primary referent here, there may be a literary allusion involved. The psalmist views the threatening chaotic sea as a contemporary manifestation of the destructive waters of old.
  26. Psalm 29:10 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the descriptive function of the preceding perfect.
  27. Psalm 29:11 tn The imperfect verbal forms in v. 11 are either descriptive or generalizing.
  28. Psalm 29:11 sn Strength. This probably refers to military power; see the use of the noun in 1 Sam 2:10 and Ps 86:16.
  29. Psalm 29:11 tn Heb “blesses his people with peace.” The Hebrew term שָׁלוֹם (shalom, “peace”) probably refers here to the protection and prosperity experienced by God’s people after the Lord intervenes in battle on their behalf.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Matthew 26:31-75 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Prediction of Peter’s Denial

31 Then Jesus said to them, “This night you will all fall away because of me, for it is written:

I will strike the shepherd,
and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.[a]

32 But after I am raised, I will go ahead of you into Galilee.” 33 Peter[b] said to him, “If they all fall away because of you, I will never fall away!” 34 Jesus said to him, “I tell you the truth,[c] on this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” 35 Peter said to him, “Even if I must die with you, I will never deny you.” And all the disciples said the same thing.


36 Then Jesus went with them to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to the disciples, “Sit here while I go over there and pray.” 37 He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and became anguished and distressed. 38 Then he said to them, “My soul is deeply grieved, even to the point of death. Remain here and stay awake with me.” 39 Going a little farther, he threw himself down with his face to the ground and prayed,[d] “My Father, if possible,[e] let this cup[f] pass from me! Yet not what I will, but what you will.” 40 Then he came to the disciples and found them sleeping. He[g] said to Peter, “So, couldn’t you stay awake with me for one hour? 41 Stay awake and pray that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” 42 He went away a second time and prayed,[h] “My Father, if this cup[i] cannot be taken away unless I drink it, your will must be done.” 43 He came again and found them sleeping; they could not keep their eyes open.[j] 44 So leaving them again, he went away and prayed for the third time, saying the same thing once more. 45 Then he came to the disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? Look, the hour is approaching, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 46 Get up, let us go. Look! My betrayer[k] is approaching!”

Betrayal and Arrest

47 While he was still speaking, Judas,[l] one of the twelve, arrived. With him was a large crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent by the chief priests and elders of the people. 48 (Now the betrayer[m] had given them a sign, saying, “The one I kiss is the man.[n] Arrest him!”)[o] 49 Immediately[p] he went up to Jesus and said, “Greetings, Rabbi,” and kissed him.[q] 50 Jesus[r] said to him, “Friend, do what you are here to do.” Then they came and took hold[s] of Jesus and arrested him. 51 But[t] one of those with Jesus grabbed[u] his sword, drew it out, and struck the high priest’s slave,[v] cutting off his ear. 52 Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back in its place![w] For all who take hold of the sword will die by the sword. 53 Or do you think that I cannot call on my Father, and that he would send me more than twelve legions[x] of angels right now? 54 How then would the scriptures that say it must happen this way be fulfilled?” 55 At that moment Jesus said to the crowd, “Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrest me like you would an outlaw?[y] Day after day I sat teaching in the temple courts, yet[z] you did not arrest me. 56 But this has happened so that the scriptures of the prophets would be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples left him and fled.

Condemned by the Sanhedrin

57 Now the ones who had arrested Jesus led him to Caiaphas, the high priest, in whose house[aa] the experts in the law[ab] and the elders had gathered. 58 But Peter was following him from a distance, all the way to the high priest’s courtyard. After[ac] going in, he sat with the guards[ad] to see the outcome. 59 The[ae] chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were trying to find false testimony against Jesus so that they could put him to death. 60 But they did not find anything, though many false witnesses came forward. Finally[af] two came forward 61 and declared, “This man[ag] said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and rebuild it in three days.’” 62 So[ah] the high priest stood up and said to him, “Have you no answer? What is this that they are testifying against you?” 63 But Jesus was silent. The[ai] high priest said to him, “I charge you under oath by the living God, tell us if you are the Christ,[aj] the Son of God.” 64 Jesus said to him, “You have said it yourself. But I tell you, from now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand[ak] of the Power[al] and coming on the clouds of heaven.”[am] 65 Then the high priest tore his clothes and declared,[an] “He has blasphemed! Why do we still need witnesses? Now[ao] you have heard the blasphemy! 66 What is your verdict?”[ap] They[aq] answered, “He is guilty and deserves[ar] death.” 67 Then they spat in his face and struck him with their fists. And some slapped him, 68 saying, “Prophesy for us, you Christ![as] Who hit you?”[at]

Peter’s Denials

69 Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard. A[au] slave girl[av] came to him and said, “You also were with Jesus the Galilean.” 70 But he denied it in front of them all:[aw] “I don’t know what you’re talking about!” 71 When[ax] he went out to the gateway, another slave girl[ay] saw him and said to the people there, “This man was with Jesus the Nazarene.” 72 He denied it again with an oath, “I do not know the man!” 73 After[az] a little while, those standing there came up to Peter and said, “You really are one of them too—even your accent[ba] gives you away!” 74 At that he began to curse, and he swore with an oath, “I do not know the man!” At that moment a rooster crowed.[bb] 75 Then Peter remembered what Jesus had said: “Before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” And he went outside and wept bitterly.[bc]


  1. Matthew 26:31 sn A quotation from Zech 13:7.
  2. Matthew 26:33 tn Grk “answering, Peter said to him.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  3. Matthew 26:34 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  4. Matthew 26:39 tn Grk “ground, praying and saying.” Here the participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  5. Matthew 26:39 tn Grk “if it is possible.”
  6. Matthew 26:39 sn This cup alludes to the wrath of God that Jesus would experience (in the form of suffering and death) for us. See Pss 11:6; 75:8-9; Isa 51:17, 19, 22 for this figure.
  7. Matthew 26:40 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  8. Matthew 26:42 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  9. Matthew 26:42 tn Grk “this”; the referent (the cup) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  10. Matthew 26:43 tn Grk “because their eyes were weighed down,” an idiom for becoming extremely or excessively sleepy (L&N 23.69).
  11. Matthew 26:46 tn Grk “the one who betrays me.”
  12. Matthew 26:47 tn Grk “behold, Judas.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  13. Matthew 26:48 tn Grk “the one who betrays him.”
  14. Matthew 26:48 tn Grk “The one I kiss is he.”
  15. Matthew 26:48 sn This remark is parenthetical within the narrative and has thus been placed in parentheses.
  16. Matthew 26:49 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  17. Matthew 26:49 sn Judas’ act of betrayal when he kissed Jesus is especially sinister when it is realized that it was common in the culture of the times for a disciple to kiss his master when greeting him.
  18. Matthew 26:50 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  19. Matthew 26:50 tn Grk “and put their hands on Jesus.”
  20. Matthew 26:51 tn Grk “And behold one.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  21. Matthew 26:51 tn Grk “extending his hand, drew out his sword, and struck.” Because rapid motion is implied in the circumstances, the translation “grabbed” was used.
  22. Matthew 26:51 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.
  23. Matthew 26:52 tn The translation “put your sword back in its place” for this phrase is given in L&N 85.52.
  24. Matthew 26:53 sn A legion was a Roman army unit of about 6,000 soldiers, so twelve legions would be 72,000.
  25. Matthew 26:55 tn Or “a revolutionary.” This term can refer to one who stirs up rebellion: BDAG 594 s.v. λῃστής 2 has “revolutionary, insurrectionist, guerrilla” citing evidence from Josephus (J. W. 2.13.2-3 [2.253-254]). However, this usage generally postdates Jesus’ time. It does refer to a figure of violence. Luke uses the same term for the highwaymen who attack the traveler in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:30).
  26. Matthew 26:55 tn Grk “and” (καί, kai), a conjunction that is elastic enough to be used to indicate a contrast, as here.
  27. Matthew 26:57 tn Grk “where.”
  28. Matthew 26:57 tn Or “where the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.
  29. Matthew 26:58 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  30. Matthew 26:58 sn The guards would have been the guards of the chief priests who had accompanied Judas to arrest Jesus.
  31. Matthew 26:59 tn Grk “Now the.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  32. Matthew 26:60 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  33. Matthew 26:61 tn Grk “This one.”
  34. Matthew 26:62 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the false testimony.
  35. Matthew 26:63 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  36. Matthew 26:63 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  37. Matthew 26:64 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1. This is a claim that Jesus shares authority with God in heaven. Those present may have thought they were his judges, but, in fact, the reverse was true.
  38. Matthew 26:64 sn The expression the Power is a circumlocution for referring to God. Such indirect references to God were common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.
  39. Matthew 26:64 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13 (see also Matt 24:30).
  40. Matthew 26:65 tn Grk “the high priest tore his clothes, saying.”
  41. Matthew 26:65 tn Grk “Behold now.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  42. Matthew 26:66 tn Grk “What do you think?”
  43. Matthew 26:66 tn Grk “answering, they said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  44. Matthew 26:66 tn Grk “he is guilty of death.” L&N 88.313 states, “pertaining to being guilty and thus deserving some particular penalty—‘guilty and deserving, guilty and punishable by.’ οἱ δὲ ἀποκριθέντες εἶπαν, ᾿Ενοχος θανάτου ἐστίν ‘they answered, He is guilty and deserves death’ Mt 26:66.”
  45. Matthew 26:68 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  46. Matthew 26:68 tn Grk “Who is the one who hit you?”sn Who hit you? This is a variation of one of three ancient games that involved blindfolds.
  47. Matthew 26:69 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  48. Matthew 26:69 tn The Greek term here is παιδίσκη (paidiskē), referring to a slave girl or slave woman.
  49. Matthew 26:70 tn Grk “he denied it…saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
  50. Matthew 26:71 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  51. Matthew 26:71 tn The words “slave girl” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the feminine singular form ἄλλη (allē).
  52. Matthew 26:73 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  53. Matthew 26:73 tn Grk “your speech.”
  54. Matthew 26:74 tn It seems most likely that this refers to a real rooster crowing, although a number of scholars have suggested that “cockcrow” is a technical term referring to the trumpet call which ended the third watch of the night (from midnight to 3 a.m.). This would then be a reference to the Roman gallicinium (ἀλεκτοροφωνία, alektorophōnia; the term is used in Mark 13:35 and is found in some mss [P37vid,45 ƒ1] in Matt 26:34) which would have been sounded at 3 a.m.; in this case Jesus would have prophesied a precise time by which the denials would have taken place. For more details see J. H. Bernard, St. John (ICC), 2:604. However, in light of the fact that Mark mentions the rooster crowing twice (Mark 14:72) and in Luke 22:60 the words are reversed (ἐφώνησεν ἀλέκτωρ, ephōnēsen alektōr), it is more probable that a real rooster is in view. In any event natural cockcrow would have occurred at approximately 3 a.m. in Palestine at this time of year (March-April) anyway.
  55. Matthew 26:75 sn When Peter went out and wept bitterly it shows he really did not want to fail here and was deeply grieved that he had.
New English Translation (NET)

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