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2 Samuel 23 New English Translation (NET Bible)

David’s Final Words

23 These are the final words of David:

“The oracle of David son of Jesse,
the oracle of the man raised up as
the ruler chosen by the God of Jacob,[a]
Israel’s beloved[b] singer of songs:
The Lord’s Spirit spoke through me;
his word was on my tongue.
The God of Israel spoke,
the Protector[c] of Israel spoke to me.
The one who rules fairly among men,
the one who rules in the fear of God,
is like the light of morning when the sun comes up,
a morning in which there are no clouds.
He is like the brightness after rain
that produces grass from the earth.
My dynasty is approved by God,[d]
for he has made a perpetual covenant with me,
arranged in all its particulars and secured.
He always delivers me,
and brings all I desire to fruition.[e]
But evil people are like thorns—
all of them are tossed away,
for they cannot be held in the hand.
The one who touches them
must use an iron instrument
or the wooden shaft of a spear.
They are completely burned up right where they lie!”[f]

David’s Warriors

These are the names of David’s warriors:

Josheb Basshebeth, a Tahkemonite, was head of the officers.[g] He killed 800 men with his spear in one battle.[h] Next in command[i] was Eleazar son of Dodo,[j] the son of Ahohi. He was one of the three warriors who were with David when they defied the Philistines who were assembled there for battle. When the men of Israel retreated,[k] 10 he stood his ground[l] and fought the Philistines until his hand grew so tired that it[m] seemed stuck to his sword. The Lord gave a great victory on that day. When the army returned to him, the only thing left to do was to plunder the corpses.

11 Next in command[n] was Shammah son of Agee the Hararite. When the Philistines assembled at Lehi,[o] where there happened to be an area of a field that was full of lentils, the army retreated before the Philistines. 12 But he made a stand in the middle of that area. He defended[p] it and defeated the Philistines; the Lord gave them a great victory.

13 At the time of[q] the harvest three[r] of the thirty leaders went down to[s] David at the cave of Adullam. A band of Philistines was camped in the valley of Rephaim. 14 David was in the stronghold at the time, while a Philistine garrison was in Bethlehem. 15 David was thirsty and said, “How I wish someone would give me some water to drink from the cistern in Bethlehem near the gate!” 16 So the three elite warriors broke through the Philistine forces and drew some water from the cistern in Bethlehem near the gate. They carried it back to David, but he refused to drink it. He poured it out as a drink offering to the Lord 17 and said, “O Lord, I will not do this![t] It is equivalent to the blood of the men who risked their lives by going.”[u] So he refused to drink it. Such were the exploits of the three elite warriors.[v]

18 Abishai son of Zeruiah, the brother of Joab, was head of the three.[w] He killed 300 men with his spear and gained fame among the three.[x] 19 From[y] the three he was given honor and he became their officer, even though he was not one of the three.

20 Benaiah son of Jehoiada was a brave warrior[z] from Kabzeel who performed great exploits. He struck down the two sons of Ariel of Moab.[aa] He also went down and killed a lion in a cistern on a snowy day. 21 He also killed an impressive-looking Egyptian.[ab] The Egyptian wielded a spear, while Benaiah attacked[ac] him with a club. He grabbed the spear out of the Egyptian’s hand and killed him with his own spear. 22 Such were the exploits of Benaiah son of Jehoiada, who gained fame among the three elite warriors. 23 He received honor from[ad] the thirty warriors, though he was not one of the three elite warriors. David put him in charge of his bodyguard.

24 Included with the thirty were the following: Asahel the brother of Joab, Elhanan son of Dodo from Bethlehem, 25 Shammah the Harodite, Elika the Harodite, 26 Helez the Paltite, Ira son of Ikkesh from Tekoa, 27 Abiezer the Anathothite, Mebunnai the Hushathite, 28 Zalmon the Ahohite, Maharai the Netophathite, 29 Heled[ae] son of Baanah the Netophathite, Ittai son of Ribai from Gibeah in Benjamin, 30 Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hiddai from the wadis of Gaash, 31 Abi-Albon the Arbathite, Azmaveth the Barhumite, 32 Eliahba the Shaalbonite, the sons of Jashen, Jonathan 33 son of[af] Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam son of Sharar the Hararite, 34 Eliphelet son of Ahasbai the[ag] Maacathite, Eliam son of Ahithophel the Gilonite, 35 Hezrai[ah] the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite, 36 Igal son of Nathan from Zobah, Bani the Gadite, 37 Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai the Beerothite (the armor-bearer[ai] of Joab son of Zeruiah), 38 Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite, 39 and Uriah the Hittite. Altogether there were thirty-seven.


  1. 2 Samuel 23:1 tn Heb “the anointed one of the God of Jacob.”
  2. 2 Samuel 23:1 tn Or “pleasant.”
  3. 2 Samuel 23:3 tn Heb “rock,” used as a metaphor of divine protection.
  4. 2 Samuel 23:5 tn Heb “For not thus [is] my house with God?”
  5. 2 Samuel 23:5 tn Heb “for all my deliverance and every desire, surely does he not make [it] grow?”
  6. 2 Samuel 23:7 tn Heb “and with fire they are completely burned up in [the place where they] remain.” The infinitive absolute is used before the finite verb to emphasize that they are completely consumed by the fire.
  7. 2 Samuel 23:8 tn The Hebrew word is sometimes rendered as “the three,” but BDB is probably correct in taking it to refer to military officers (BDB 1026 s.v. שְׁלִישִׁי). In that case the etymological connection of this word to the Hebrew numerical adjective for “three” can be explained as originating with a designation for the third warrior in a chariot.
  8. 2 Samuel 23:8 tc The translation follows some LXX mss (see 1 Chr 11:11 as well) in reading הוּא עוֹרֵר אֶת־חֲנִיתוֹ (huʾ ʿorer ʾet khanito, “he raised up his spear”) rather than the MT’s הוּא עֲדִינוֹ הָעֶצְנִי (huʾ ʿadino haʿetsni [Kethib = הָעֶצְנוֹ, haʿetsno]; “Adino the Ezenite”). The emended text reads literally “he was wielding his spear against eight hundred, [who were] slain at one time.”
  9. 2 Samuel 23:9 tn Heb “after him.”
  10. 2 Samuel 23:9 tc This follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading דֹּדוֹ (dodo) rather than the Kethib of the MT דֹּדַי (doday; cf. ASV, NIV, NLT). But see 1 Chr 27:4.
  11. 2 Samuel 23:9 tn Heb “went up.”
  12. 2 Samuel 23:10 tn Heb “arose.”
  13. 2 Samuel 23:10 tn Heb “his hand.”
  14. 2 Samuel 23:11 tn Heb “after him.”
  15. 2 Samuel 23:11 tn The Hebrew text is difficult here. The MT reads לַחַיָּה (lachayyah), which implies a rare use of the word חַיָּה (chayyah). The word normally refers to an animal, but if the MT is accepted it would here have the sense of a troop or community of people. BDB 312 s.v. II. חַיָּה, for example, understands the similar reference in v. 13 to be to “a group of allied families, making a raid together.” But this works better in v. 13 than it does in v. 11, where the context seems to suggest a particular staging location for a military operation. (See 1 Chr 11:15.) It therefore seems best to understand the word in v. 11 as a place name with ה (he) directive. In that case the Masoretes mistook the word for the common term for an animal and then tried to make sense of it in this context.
  16. 2 Samuel 23:12 tn Heb “delivered.”
  17. 2 Samuel 23:13 tn The meaning of Hebrew אֶל־קָצִיר (ʾel qatsir) seems here to be “at the time of harvest,” although this is an unusual use of the phrase. As S. R. Driver points out, this preposition does not normally have the temporal sense of “in” or “during” (S. R. Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Books of Samuel, 366).
  18. 2 Samuel 23:13 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading שְׁלֹשָׁה (sheloshah, “three”) rather than the Kethib of the MT שְׁלֹשִׁים (sheloshim, “thirty”). “Thirty” is due to dittography of the following word and makes no sense in the context.
  19. 2 Samuel 23:13 tn Heb “went down…and approached.”
  20. 2 Samuel 23:17 tn Heb “Far be it to me, O Lord, from doing this.”
  21. 2 Samuel 23:17 tn Heb “[Is it not] the blood of the men who were going with their lives?”
  22. 2 Samuel 23:17 tn Heb “These things the three warriors did.”
  23. 2 Samuel 23:18 tc The translation follows the Qere, many medieval Hebrew mss, the LXX, and Vulgate in reading הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה (hashelosha, “the three”) rather than the Kethib of the MT הַשָּׁלִשִׁי (hashalishi, “the third,” or “adjutant”). Two medieval Hebrew mss and the Syriac Peshitta have “thirty.”
  24. 2 Samuel 23:18 tn Heb “and he was wielding his spear against three hundred, [who were] slain, and to him there was a name among the three.”
  25. 2 Samuel 23:19 tn Or “more than.”
  26. 2 Samuel 23:20 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading חַיִל (khayil, “valor”) rather than the Kethib of the MT, חַי (khay, “life”).
  27. 2 Samuel 23:20 tc Heb “the two of Ariel, Moab.” The precise meaning of אריאל is uncertain; some read “warrior.” The present translation assumes that the word is a proper name and that בני, “sons of,” has accidentally dropped from the text by homoioarcton (note the preceding שׁני), so originally: שְׁנֵי בְנֵי אֲרִיאֵל (shene vene ʾariʾel).
  28. 2 Samuel 23:21 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading אִישׁ (ʾish, “man”) rather than the Kethib of the MT, אֲשֶׁר (ʾasher, “who”).
  29. 2 Samuel 23:21 tn Heb “and he went down to.”
  30. 2 Samuel 23:23 tn Or “more than.”
  31. 2 Samuel 23:29 tc The translation follows many medieval Hebrew mss in reading חֵלֶד (kheled; cf. NAB, NIV, NLT) rather than the MT חֵלֶב (khelev).
  32. 2 Samuel 23:33 tn The Hebrew text does not have “the son of.”
  33. 2 Samuel 23:34 tn Heb “the son of.”
  34. 2 Samuel 23:35 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading חֶצְרַי (khetsray; cf. KJV, NAB) rather than the Kethib of the MT, חֶצְרוֹ (khetsro).
  35. 2 Samuel 23:37 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading the singular rather than the plural of the Kethib of the MT.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 28 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 28[a]

By David.

28 To you, O Lord, I cry out!
My Protector,[b] do not ignore me.[c]
If you do not respond to me,[d]
I will join[e] those who are descending into the grave.[f]
Hear my plea for mercy when I cry out to you for help,
when I lift my hands[g] toward your holy temple.[h]
Do not drag me away with evil men,
with those who behave wickedly,[i]
who talk so friendly to their neighbors,[j]
while they plan to harm them.[k]
Pay them back for their evil deeds.
Pay them back for what they do.
Punish them.[l]
For they do not understand the Lord’s actions,
or the way he carries out justice.[m]
The Lord[n] will permanently demolish them.[o]
The Lord deserves praise,[p]
for he has heard my plea for mercy.[q]
The Lord strengthens and protects me;[r]
I trust in him with all my heart.[s]
I am rescued[t] and my heart is full of joy;[u]
I will sing to him in gratitude.[v]
The Lord strengthens his people;[w]
he protects and delivers his chosen king.[x]
Deliver your people.
Empower[y] the nation that belongs to you.[z]
Care for them like a shepherd and carry them in your arms[aa] at all times![ab]


  1. Psalm 28:1 sn Psalm 28. The author looks to the Lord for vindication, asks that the wicked be repaid in full for their evil deeds, and affirms his confidence that the Lord will protect his own.
  2. Psalm 28:1 tn Heb “my rocky summit.” The Lord is compared to a rocky summit where one can find protection from enemies. See Ps 18:2.
  3. Psalm 28:1 tn Heb “do not be deaf from me.”
  4. Psalm 28:1 tn Heb “lest [if] you are silent from me.”
  5. Psalm 28:1 tn Heb “I will be equal with.”
  6. Psalm 28:1 tn Heb “the pit.” The noun בּוֹר (bor, “pit, cistern”) is sometimes used of the grave and/or the realm of the dead.
  7. Psalm 28:2 sn I lift my hands. Lifting one’s hands toward God was a gesture of prayer.
  8. Psalm 28:2 tn The Hebrew term דְּבִיר (devir, “temple”) actually refers to the most holy place within the sanctuary.
  9. Psalm 28:3 tn Heb “workers of wickedness.”
  10. Psalm 28:3 tn Heb “speakers of peace with their neighbors.”
  11. Psalm 28:3 tn Heb “and evil [is] in their heart[s].”
  12. Psalm 28:4 tn Heb “Give to them according to their work, and according to the evil of their deeds. According to the work of their hands give to them. Return their due to them.” The highly repetitive style reflects the psalmist’s agitated emotional state and draws attention to his yearning for justice.
  13. Psalm 28:5 tn Heb “or the work of his hands.” In this context “the Lord’s actions” and “the work of his hands” probably refer to the way he carries out justice by vindicating the godly and punishing the wicked. (Note the final line of the verse, which refers to divine judgment. See also Ps 92:4-7.) Evil men do not “understand” God’s just ways; they fail to realize he will protect the innocent. Consequently they seek to harm the godly, as if they believe they will never be held accountable for their actions.
  14. Psalm 28:5 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the Lord, who is referred to in the two immediately preceding lines) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  15. Psalm 28:5 tn Heb “will tear them down and not rebuild them.” The ungodly are compared to a structure that is permanently demolished.
  16. Psalm 28:6 tn Heb “blessed [be] the Lord.”
  17. Psalm 28:6 sn He has heard my plea for mercy. The psalmist’s mood abruptly changes at this point, because the Lord responded positively to his petition and assured him that he would deliver him.
  18. Psalm 28:7 tn Heb “The Lord [is] my strength and my shield.”
  19. Psalm 28:7 tn Heb “in him my heart trusts.”
  20. Psalm 28:7 tn Or “I am helped.”
  21. Psalm 28:7 tn Heb “and my heart exults.”
  22. Psalm 28:7 tn Heb “and from my song I will thank him.” As pointed in the Hebrew text, מִשִּׁירִי (mishiri) appears to be “from my song,” but the preposition “from” never occurs elsewhere with the verb “to thank” (Hiphil of יָדָה, yadah). Perhaps משׁיר is a noun form meaning “song.” If so, it can be taken as an adverbial accusative, “and [with] my song I will thank him.” See P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 236.
  23. Psalm 28:8 tn Heb “the Lord [is] strength to them” (or perhaps, “to him”). The form לָמוֹ (lamo, “to them/him”) probably needs to be emended to לְעַמּוֹ (leʿammo, “to his people”; see P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 [WBC], 236), perhaps due to quiescence of the letter ʿayin (ע; see P. McCarter, Textual Criticism [GBS], 55). Note the reference to the Lord’s “people” in the next verse. Also, a few Hebrew mss, the LXX, and Syriac support לְעַמּוֹ (leʿammo, “to his people”).
  24. Psalm 28:8 tn Heb “he [is] a refuge of help for his anointed one.” The noun מָשִׁיחַ (mashiakh, “anointed one”) refers to the Davidic king, who perhaps speaks as representative of the nation in this psalm. See Pss 2:2; 18:50; 20:6; 84:9; 89:38, 51; 132:10, 17.
  25. Psalm 28:9 tn Or “bless.”
  26. Psalm 28:9 tn Heb “your inheritance.” The parallelism (note “your people”) indicates that Israel is in view.
  27. Psalm 28:9 tn Heb “shepherd them and lift them up.”sn The shepherd metaphor is sometimes associated with royal responsibility. See 2 Sam 5:2; 7:7; Mic 5:2-4).
  28. Psalm 28:9 tn Or “forever.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Matthew 26:1-30 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Plot Against Jesus

26 When[a] Jesus had finished saying all these things, he told his disciples, “You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be handed over[b] to be crucified.”[c] Then the chief priests and the elders of the people met together in the palace of the high priest, who was named Caiaphas. They[d] planned to arrest Jesus by stealth and kill him. But they said, “Not during the feast, so that there won’t be a riot among the people.”[e]

Jesus’ Anointing

Now while Jesus was in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper,[f] a woman came to him with an alabaster jar[g] of expensive perfumed oil,[h] and she poured it on his head as he was at the table.[i] When[j] the disciples saw this, they became indignant and said, “Why this waste? It[k] could have been sold at a high price and the money[l] given to the poor!” 10 When[m] Jesus learned of this, he said to them, “Why are you bothering this woman? She[n] has done a good service for me. 11 For you will always have the poor with you, but you will not always have me![o] 12 When[p] she poured this oil on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. 13 I tell you the truth,[q] wherever this gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what she has done will also be told in memory of her.”

The Plan to Betray Jesus

14 Then one of the twelve, the one named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests 15 and said, “What will you give me to betray him into your hands?”[r] So they set out thirty silver coins for him. 16 From that time[s] on, Judas[t] began looking for an opportunity to betray him.

The Passover

17 Now on the first day of the feast of[u] Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus and said,[v] “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?”[w] 18 He[x] said, “Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, ‘The Teacher says, “My time is near. I will observe the Passover with my disciples at your house.”’” 19 So[y] the disciples did as Jesus had instructed them, and they prepared the Passover. 20 When[z] it was evening, he took his place at the table[aa] with the twelve.[ab] 21 And while they were eating he said, “I tell you the truth,[ac] one of you will betray me.”[ad] 22 They[ae] became greatly distressed[af] and each one began to say to him, “Surely not I, Lord?” 23 He[ag] answered, “The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me[ah] will betray me. 24 The Son of Man will go as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for him if he had never been born.” 25 Then[ai] Judas, the one who would betray him, said, “Surely not I, Rabbi?” Jesus[aj] replied, “You have said it yourself.”

The Lord’s Supper

26 While[ak] they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to his disciples, and said, “Take, eat, this is my body.” 27 And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you, 28 for this is my blood, the blood[al] of the covenant,[am] that is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 29 I[an] tell you, from now on I will not drink of this fruit[ao] of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.” 30 After[ap] singing a hymn,[aq] they went out to the Mount of Olives.


  1. Matthew 26:1 tn Grk “And it happened when.” The introductory phrase καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto, “it happened that”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  2. Matthew 26:2 tn Or “will be delivered up.”
  3. Matthew 26:2 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
  4. Matthew 26:4 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  5. Matthew 26:5 sn The suggestion here is that Jesus was too popular to openly arrest him.
  6. Matthew 26:6 sn See the note on leper in Matt 8:2.
  7. Matthew 26:7 sn A jar made of alabaster stone was normally used for very precious substances like perfumes. It normally had a long neck which was sealed and had to be broken off so the contents could be used.
  8. Matthew 26:7 tn Μύρον (muron) was usually made of myrrh (from which the English word is derived) but here it is used in the sense of ointment or perfumed oil (L&N 6.205).sn Mark specifies that the perfumed oil was Nard or spikenard, which is a fragrant oil from the root and spike of the nard plant of northern India (Mark 14:3). This perfumed oil, if made of something like nard, would have been extremely expensive, costing up to a year’s pay for an average laborer.
  9. Matthew 26:7 tn Grk “as he was reclining.”sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
  10. Matthew 26:8 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  11. Matthew 26:9 tn Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.
  12. Matthew 26:9 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied (as the proceeds from the sale of the perfumed oil).
  13. Matthew 26:10 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  14. Matthew 26:10 tn Grk “For she.” Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.
  15. Matthew 26:11 tn In the Greek text of this clause, “me” is in emphatic position (the first word in the clause). To convey some impression of the emphasis, an exclamation point is used in the translation.
  16. Matthew 26:12 tn Grk “For when.” Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.
  17. Matthew 26:13 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  18. Matthew 26:15 tn Grk “What will you give to me, and I will deliver him over to you?”
  19. Matthew 26:16 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  20. Matthew 26:16 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  21. Matthew 26:17 tn The words “the feast of” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.
  22. Matthew 26:17 tn Grk “the disciples came to Jesus, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.
  23. Matthew 26:17 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 26:20). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.
  24. Matthew 26:18 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  25. Matthew 26:19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  26. Matthew 26:20 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  27. Matthew 26:20 tn Grk “he was reclining at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
  28. Matthew 26:20 tc Many witnesses, some of them quite significant, have μαθητῶν (mathētōn, “disciples”; א A L W Δ Θ 33 892 1241 1424 pm lat) or μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ (mathētōn autou, “his disciples”; 0281 it) after δώδεκα (dōdeka, “twelve”). However, such clarifications are typical scribal expansions to the text. Further, the shorter reading (the one that ends with δώδεκα) has strong support in P37vid,45vid B D K Γ ƒ1,13 565 579 700 pm. Thus both internally and externally the reading that ends the verse with “the twelve” is to be preferred.
  29. Matthew 26:21 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  30. Matthew 26:21 tn Or “will hand me over.”
  31. Matthew 26:22 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  32. Matthew 26:22 tn The participle λυπούμενοι (lupoumenoi) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.
  33. Matthew 26:23 tn Grk “answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  34. Matthew 26:23 sn The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me. The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him—somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.
  35. Matthew 26:25 tn Grk “answering, Judas.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to reflect the sequence of events in the narrative.
  36. Matthew 26:25 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  37. Matthew 26:26 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  38. Matthew 26:28 tn Grk “for this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many.” In order to avoid confusion about which is poured out, the translation supplies “blood” twice so that the following phrase clearly modifies “blood,” not “covenant.”
  39. Matthew 26:28 tc Most witnesses, including several significant ones, read καινῆς (kainēs, “new”) here. Homoioteleuton is a possible reason for the omission, since the article, adjective, and noun are all first declension genitive singulars (τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης, tēs kainēs diathēkēs, “the new covenant”), but the likelihood of excellent, early, and sufficiently diverse witnesses all making the same mistake is remote. A much more probable scenario is that the addition of καινῆς was motivated by the parallel in Luke 22:20. It is a natural expansion on the text. Coupled with the fact that the shorter reading is found in such good and diverse witnesses (e.g., P37,45vid א B L Z Θ 0298vid 33 mae), it most likely is the initial text.sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.
  40. Matthew 26:29 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  41. Matthew 26:29 tn Grk “produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).
  42. Matthew 26:30 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  43. Matthew 26:30 sn After singing a hymn. The Hallel Psalms (Pss 113-118) were sung during the meal. Psalms 113 and 114 were sung just before the second cup and 115-118 were sung at the end of the meal, after the fourth, or hallel cup.
New English Translation (NET)

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