Jonathan and David

18 Now it came about, when he had finished speaking to Saul, that [a](A)Jonathan committed himself to David, and (B)Jonathan loved him as himself. And Saul took him that day and (C)did not let him return to his father’s house. Then (D)Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as himself. (E)Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was on him and gave it to David, with his military gear, including his sword, his bow, and his belt. And David went into battle wherever Saul sent him, and always [b]achieved success; so Saul put him in charge of the men of war. And it was pleasing in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul’s servants.

Now it happened as they were coming, when David returned from killing the Philistine, that (F)the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet King Saul, with tambourines, with joy and with other [c]musical instruments. The women (G)sang as they [d]played, and said,

(H)Saul has slain his thousands,
(I)And David his ten thousands.”

Then Saul became very angry, for this lyric [e]displeased him; and he said, “They have given David credit for ten thousands, but to me they have given credit for only thousands! Now what more can he have but the (J)kingdom?” And Saul eyed David with suspicion from that day on.

Saul Turns against David

10 Now it came about on the next day that (K)an evil spirit from God rushed upon Saul, and (L)he raved in the midst of the house while David was playing the harp with his hand, [f](M)as usual; and [g](N)a spear was in Saul’s hand. 11 Then (O)Saul hurled the spear, for he thought, “I will [h]pin David to the wall.” But David [i]escaped from his presence, twice.

12 Now (P)Saul was afraid of David, (Q)because the Lord was with him but (R)had left Saul. 13 So Saul removed him from [j]his presence and appointed him as his commander of a thousand; and (S)he went out and came in before the people. 14 David was [k]successful in all his ways, for (T)the Lord was with him. 15 When Saul saw that he was [l]very successful, he was afraid of him. 16 But (U)all Israel and Judah loved David, for he would go out to battle and [m]return [n]before them.

17 Then Saul said to David, “(V)Here is my older daughter Merab; I will give her to you as a wife, only be a valiant man for me and fight (W)the Lords battles.” For Saul thought, “My hand shall not be against him, but (X)let the hand of the Philistines be against him.” 18 But David said to Saul, “(Y)Who am I, and who is my family, or my father’s family in Israel, that I should be the king’s son-in-law?” 19 So it came about at the time that Merab, Saul’s daughter, was to be given to David, that she was given instead to (Z)Adriel (AA)the Meholathite as a wife.

David Marries Saul’s Daughter

20 Now (AB)Michal, Saul’s daughter, loved David. When they informed Saul, the thing was pleasing [o]to him. 21 For Saul thought, “I will give her to him so that she may become a trap for him, and (AC)that the hand of the Philistines may be against him.” Therefore Saul said to David, “(AD)For a second time you may become my son-in-law, today.” 22 Then Saul commanded his servants, “Speak to David in secret, saying, ‘Behold, the king delights in you, and all his servants love you; now then, become the king’s son-in-law.’” 23 So Saul’s servants spoke these words [p]to David. But David said, “Is it trivial in your sight to become the king’s son-in-law, (AE)since I am only a poor man and insignificant?” 24 Then Saul’s servants reported to him, saying, “[q]These are the words David spoke.” 25 Saul then said, “This is what you shall say to David: ‘The king does not desire any (AF)dowry except a hundred foreskins of the Philistines, (AG)to take vengeance on the king’s enemies.’” But (AH)Saul plotted to have David fall by the hand of the Philistines. 26 When his servants told David these words, [r]it pleased David to become the king’s son-in-law. So [s](AI)before the time had expired, 27 David set out and went, (AJ)he and his men, and fatally struck two hundred men among the Philistines. Then (AK)David brought their foreskins, and they presented all two hundred of them to the king, so that he might become the king’s son-in-law. And Saul gave him his daughter Michal as a wife. 28 When Saul saw and realized that the Lord was with David, and that Michal, Saul’s daughter, loved him, 29 then Saul was even more afraid of David. So Saul was David’s enemy continually.

30 Then the commanders of the Philistines (AL)went to battle, and it happened as often as they went out, that David (AM)was more [t]successful than all the servants of Saul. So his name was held in high esteem.

David Protected from Saul

19 Now Saul told his son Jonathan and all his servants (AN)to put David to death. But (AO)Jonathan, Saul’s son, greatly delighted in David. So Jonathan informed David, saying, “My father Saul is seeking to put you to death. Now then, please be on your guard in the morning, and stay in a hiding place and conceal yourself. And as for me, I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where you are hiding, and I will speak with my father about you; and (AP)whatever I [u]find out, I will tell you.” Then Jonathan (AQ)spoke well of David to his father Saul and said to him, “(AR)May the king not sin against his servant David, since he has not sinned against you, and since his deeds have been very [v]beneficial to you. For (AS)he took his life in his hand and struck the Philistine, and (AT)the Lord brought about a great [w]victory for all Israel; you saw it and rejoiced. (AU)Why then would you sin against innocent blood by putting David to death [x]for no reason?” Saul listened to the voice of Jonathan, and Saul vowed, “As the Lord lives, David shall not be put to death.” Then Jonathan called David, and Jonathan told him all these words. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence as (AV)before.

When there was war again, David went out and fought the Philistines and [y]defeated them with great slaughter, so that they fled from him. Now there was (AW)an evil spirit from the Lord on Saul as he was sitting in his house (AX)with his spear in his hand, (AY)and David was playing the harp with his hand. 10 (AZ)And Saul tried to [z]pin David to the wall with the spear, but he escaped from Saul’s presence, so that he stuck the spear into the wall. And David fled and escaped that night.

11 Then (BA)Saul sent messengers to David’s house to watch him, in order to put him to death in the morning. But Michal, David’s wife, informed him, saying, “If you do not save your life tonight, tomorrow you will be put to death!” 12 (BB)So Michal let David down through a window, and he went and fled, and escaped. 13 And Michal took (BC)the [aa]household idol and laid it on the bed, and put a quilt of goats’ hair at its head, and covered it with clothing. 14 When Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, “(BD)He is sick.” 15 Then Saul sent messengers to see David, saying, “Bring him up to me on [ab]his bed, so that I may put him to death.” 16 When the messengers entered, behold, the [ac]household idol was on the bed with the quilt of goats’ hair at its head. 17 So Saul said to Michal, “Why have you betrayed me like this and let my enemy go, so that he has escaped?” And Michal said to Saul, “He said to me, ‘Let me go! (BE)Why should I put you to death?’”

18 So David fled and escaped, and came (BF)to Samuel at Ramah; and he informed him of everything that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and stayed in (BG)Naioth. 19 But it was reported to Saul, saying, “Behold, David is at Naioth in Ramah.” 20 Then (BH)Saul sent messengers to take David, but when they saw (BI)the company of prophets prophesying, with Samuel standing and presiding over them, the Spirit of God came upon the messengers of Saul; and (BJ)they also prophesied. 21 When Saul was informed of this, he sent other messengers, but they also prophesied. So Saul sent messengers again the third time, yet they prophesied. 22 Then he went to Ramah himself and came as far as the large well that is in Secu; and he [ad]asked, “Where are Samuel and David?” And someone said, “Behold, they are at Naioth in Ramah.” 23 So he [ae]proceeded there to Naioth in Ramah; but (BK)the Spirit of God came upon him also, so that he went along prophesying continually until he came to Naioth in Ramah. 24 He also stripped off his clothes, and he too prophesied before Samuel and [af]lay down [ag](BL)naked all that day and all night. Therefore they say, “(BM)Is Saul also among the prophets?”

David and Jonathan’s Covenant

20 Then David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and he came and (BN)said [ah]to Jonathan, “What have I done? What is my guilt? And what is my sin before your father, that he is seeking my life?” He said to him, “Far from it, you shall not die! Behold, my father does nothing either great or small [ai]without informing me. So why would my father hide this thing from me? It is not so!” Yet David (BO)vowed again, [aj]saying, “Your father is well aware that I have found favor in your sight, and he has said, ‘Jonathan is not to know this, otherwise he will be worried.’ But indeed (BP)as the Lord lives and as your soul lives, there is [ak]just a step between me and death.” Then Jonathan said to David, “Whatever [al]you say, I will do for you.” So David said to Jonathan, “Behold, tomorrow is (BQ)the new moon, and I am obligated (BR)to sit down to eat with the king. But let me go (BS)so that I may hide myself in the field until the third evening. If your father misses me at all, then say, ‘David earnestly requested leave of me to run to (BT)Bethlehem, his city, because it is (BU)the yearly sacrifice there for the whole family.’ If he [am]says, ‘That is good,’ your servant will be safe; but if he is very angry, (BV)be aware that he has decided on evil. So deal kindly with your servant, for (BW)you have brought your servant into a covenant of the Lord with you. But (BX)if [an]I am guilty of wrongdoing, kill me yourself; for why then should you bring me to your father?” Jonathan said, “Far be it from you! For if I in fact learn that my father has decided [ao]to inflict harm on you, would I not inform you?” 10 Then David said to Jonathan, “Who will inform me [ap]if your father answers you harshly?” 11 Jonathan said to David, “Come, and let’s go out to the field.” So both of them went out to the field.

12 Then Jonathan said to David, “The Lord, the God of Israel, is my witness! When I have sounded out my father about this time tomorrow or the third day, behold, if he has a good feeling toward [aq]you, shall I not then send word to you and [ar]inform you? 13 If it pleases my father to do you harm, (BY)may the Lord do so to [as]me and more so, if I fail to [at]inform you and send you away, so that you may go in safety. And (BZ)may the Lord be with you as He has been with my father. 14 And if I am still alive, will you not show me the faithfulness of the Lord, so that I do not die? 15 And (CA)you shall never cut off your loyalty to my house, not even when the Lord cuts off every one of the enemies of David from the face of the earth.” 16 So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, saying, “(CB)May the Lord demand it from the hands of David’s enemies.” 17 And Jonathan made David vow again because of his love for him, because (CC)he loved him as he loved his own life.

18 Then Jonathan said to him, “(CD)Tomorrow is the new moon, and you will be missed since your seat will be empty. 19 When you have stayed for three days, you shall go down quickly and come to the place where you hid yourself on that eventful day, and you shall remain beside the stone Ezel. 20 And I will shoot three arrows to the side, as though I shot at a target. 21 Then behold, I will send the boy, telling him, ‘Go, find the arrows.’ If I specifically say to the boy, ‘Behold, the arrows are on this side of you, get them,’ then come, because it is safe for you and there is nothing to harm you, as the Lord lives. 22 But if I [au]say to the youth, ‘(CE)Behold, the arrows are beyond you,’ go, because the Lord has sent you away. 23 (CF)As for the [av]agreement of which you and I have spoken, behold, (CG)the Lord is between you and me forever.”

24 So David hid himself in the field; and when the new moon came, the king sat down to eat food. 25 Now the king sat on his seat as usual, the seat by the wall; then Jonathan stood up and Abner sat down by Saul’s side; but (CH)David’s place was empty. 26 Nevertheless Saul did not say anything that day, because he thought, “It must have been an [aw]accident; (CI)he is not clean, undoubtedly he is not clean.” 27 But it came about the next day, the second day of the new moon, that David’s place was empty again; so Saul said to his son Jonathan, “Why has the son of Jesse not come to the meal, either yesterday or today?” 28 And Jonathan answered Saul, “(CJ)David earnestly requested leave of me to go to Bethlehem. 29 He said, ‘Please let me go, because our family has a sacrifice in the city, and my brother has ordered me to attend. So now, if I have found favor in your sight, please let me slip away so that I may see my brothers.’ For this reason he has not come to the king’s table.”

Saul Is Angry with Jonathan

30 Then Saul’s anger burned against Jonathan, and he said to him, “You son of a perverse, rebellious woman! Do I not know that you are choosing the son of Jesse to your own shame, and to the shame of your mother’s nakedness? 31 For, [ax]as long as the son of Jesse lives on the earth, neither you nor your kingdom will be established. Now then, send men and bring him to me, for (CK)he is [ay]doomed to die!” 32 But Jonathan replied to his father Saul and said to him, “(CL)Why must he be put to death? What has he done?” 33 Then (CM)Saul hurled his spear at him to strike and kill him; (CN)so Jonathan knew that his father had decided to put David to death. 34 Then Jonathan got up from the table in the heat of anger, and did not eat food on the second day of the new moon, because he was worried about David since his father had insulted him.

35 Now it came about in the morning that Jonathan went out to the field at the time agreed upon with David, and a little boy was with him. 36 He said to his boy, “(CO)Run, find now the arrows which I am about to shoot.” The boy ran, and he shot [az]an arrow past him. 37 When the boy reached the location of the arrow which Jonathan had shot, Jonathan called after the boy and said, “(CP)Is the arrow not beyond you?” 38 Then Jonathan called after the boy, “Hurry, be quick, do not stay!” And Jonathan’s boy picked up the arrow and came to his master. 39 But the boy was not aware of anything; only Jonathan and David knew about the matter. 40 Then Jonathan gave his weapons to his boy and said to him, “Go, bring them to the city.” 41 When the boy was gone, David got up from the south side, then he fell on his face to the ground and (CQ)bowed three times. And they kissed each other and wept together, until (CR)David wept immeasurably. 42 Then Jonathan said to David, “(CS)Go [ba]in safety, since we have sworn to each other in the name of the Lord, saying, ‘(CT)The Lord will be between me and you, and between my [bb]descendants and your [bc]descendants forever.’” [bd]So David set out and went on his way, while Jonathan went into the city.


  1. 1 Samuel 18:1 Lit the soul of Jonathan was joined to the soul of
  2. 1 Samuel 18:5 Or acted wisely
  3. 1 Samuel 18:6 Possibly three-stringed lutes
  4. 1 Samuel 18:7 Or danced
  5. 1 Samuel 18:8 Lit was evil in his eyes
  6. 1 Samuel 18:10 Lit day by day
  7. 1 Samuel 18:10 Lit the
  8. 1 Samuel 18:11 Lit strike David and the wall
  9. 1 Samuel 18:11 Lit turned about
  10. 1 Samuel 18:13 Lit with him
  11. 1 Samuel 18:14 Or acting wisely
  12. 1 Samuel 18:15 Or acting very wisely
  13. 1 Samuel 18:16 Lit come in
  14. 1 Samuel 18:16 Or leading them
  15. 1 Samuel 18:20 Lit in his sight
  16. 1 Samuel 18:23 Lit in the ears of
  17. 1 Samuel 18:24 Lit According to these words David
  18. 1 Samuel 18:26 Lit the thing was pleasing in the sight of
  19. 1 Samuel 18:26 Lit the days were not fulfilled, and
  20. 1 Samuel 18:30 Or wise
  21. 1 Samuel 19:3 Lit see
  22. 1 Samuel 19:4 Lit good
  23. 1 Samuel 19:5 Lit deliverance
  24. 1 Samuel 19:5 Or undeservedly
  25. 1 Samuel 19:8 Lit struck
  26. 1 Samuel 19:10 Lit strike David and the wall
  27. 1 Samuel 19:13 Heb teraphim
  28. 1 Samuel 19:15 Lit the
  29. 1 Samuel 19:16 Heb teraphim
  30. 1 Samuel 19:22 Lit asked and said
  31. 1 Samuel 19:23 Lit went
  32. 1 Samuel 19:24 Lit fell
  33. 1 Samuel 19:24 I.e., without outward garments
  34. 1 Samuel 20:1 Lit before
  35. 1 Samuel 20:2 Lit and he does not uncover my ear
  36. 1 Samuel 20:3 Lit and said
  37. 1 Samuel 20:3 Lit about
  38. 1 Samuel 20:4 Lit your soul says
  39. 1 Samuel 20:7 Lit says thus
  40. 1 Samuel 20:8 Lit guilt exists in me
  41. 1 Samuel 20:9 Lit evil to come on
  42. 1 Samuel 20:10 As in ancient versions; MT or what your father
  43. 1 Samuel 20:12 Lit David
  44. 1 Samuel 20:12 Lit uncover your ear
  45. 1 Samuel 20:13 Lit Jonathan
  46. 1 Samuel 20:13 Lit uncover your ear
  47. 1 Samuel 20:22 Lit say thus
  48. 1 Samuel 20:23 Lit word
  49. 1 Samuel 20:26 I.e., accident of ritual pollution
  50. 1 Samuel 20:31 Lit all the days which
  51. 1 Samuel 20:31 Lit a son of death
  52. 1 Samuel 20:36 Lit the
  53. 1 Samuel 20:42 Lit to peace
  54. 1 Samuel 20:42 Lit seed
  55. 1 Samuel 20:42 Lit seed
  56. 1 Samuel 20:42 Ch 21:1 in Heb

The Lord, a Refuge and Defense.

For the music director. A Psalm of David.

11 In the Lord I (A)take refuge;
How can you say to my soul, “Flee as a bird to your (B)mountain?
For, behold, the wicked (C)bend the bow,
They have [a](D)set their arrow on the string
To (E)shoot in darkness at the upright in heart.
If the (F)foundations are destroyed,
What can the righteous do?”

The Lord is in His (G)holy temple; the [b]Lords (H)throne is in heaven;
His (I)eyes see, His eyelids test the sons of mankind.
The Lord (J)tests the righteous and (K)the wicked,
And His soul hates one who loves violence.
He will (L)rain [c]coals of fire upon the wicked,
(M)And brimstone and (N)burning wind will be the portion of (O)their cup.
For the Lord is (P)righteous, (Q)He loves [d]righteousness;
The upright will (R)see His face.


  1. Psalm 11:2 Or fixed
  2. Psalm 11:4 Lit Lord, His throne
  3. Psalm 11:6 As in a Gr version; MT snares; Fire and
  4. Psalm 11:7 Or righteous deeds

Prayer for Rescue from Enemies.

For the music director; set to [a]Al-tashheth. A [b]Mikhtam of David, [c]when Saul sent men and they watched the house in order to kill him.

59 (A)Rescue me from my enemies, my God;
[d](B)Set me securely on high away from those who rise up against me.
Rescue me from (C)those who practice injustice,
And save me from (D)men of bloodshed.
For behold, they (E)have [e]set an ambush for my [f]life;
[g]Fierce men (F)attack me,
(G)Not for my wrongdoing nor for my sin, Lord,
[h](H)For no guilt of mine, they run and take their stand against me.
(I)Stir Yourself to [i]help me, and see!
You, (J)Lord God of armies, the God of Israel,
Awake to [j](K)punish all the nations;
(L)Do not be gracious to any who deal treacherously in wrongdoing. Selah
They (M)return at evening, they howl like a (N)dog,
And prowl around the city.
Behold, they (O)gush forth with their mouths;
(P)Swords are in their lips,
For, they say, “(Q)Who hears?”
But You, Lord, (R)laugh at them;
You (S)scoff at all the nations.

Because of [k]his (T)strength I will watch for You,
For God is my (U)refuge.
10 [l]My God (V)in His faithfulness will meet me;
God will let me (W)look triumphantly upon my enemies.
11 Do not kill them, (X)or my people will forget;
[m](Y)Scatter them by Your power and bring them down,
Lord, (Z)our shield.
12 [n]On account of the (AA)sin of their mouths and the words of their lips,
May they even be (AB)caught in their pride,
And on account of (AC)curses and lies which they tell.
13 [o](AD)Destroy them in wrath, [p]destroy them so that they will no longer exist;
So that people may (AE)know that God [q]rules in Jacob,
To the ends of the earth. Selah
14 They (AF)return at evening, they howl like a dog,
And prowl around the city.
15 They (AG)wander about [r]for food
And [s]murmur if they are not satisfied.

16 But as for me, I will (AH)sing of Your strength;
Yes, I will (AI)joyfully sing of Your faithfulness in the (AJ)morning,
For You have been my (AK)refuge
And a (AL)place of refuge on the day of my distress.
17 (AM)My strength, I will sing praises to You;
For God is my (AN)refuge, the [t]God who shows me favor.


  1. Psalm 59 Title Lit Do Not Destroy
  2. Psalm 59 Title Possibly Epigrammatic Poem or Atonement Psalm
  3. Psalm 59 Title 1 Sam 19:11
  4. Psalm 59:1 Or May You put me in an inaccessibly high place
  5. Psalm 59:3 Or lain in wait
  6. Psalm 59:3 Lit soul
  7. Psalm 59:3 Or Strong
  8. Psalm 59:4 Lit Without guilt
  9. Psalm 59:4 Lit meet
  10. Psalm 59:5 Lit visit
  11. Psalm 59:9 LXX, some mss and some ancient versions my strength (cf. v 17)
  12. Psalm 59:10 Many mss and some ancient versions The God of my faithfulness
  13. Psalm 59:11 Or Make them wander
  14. Psalm 59:12 Or The sin of their mouth is the word of their lips,
  15. Psalm 59:13 Lit Bring to an end
  16. Psalm 59:13 Lit Bring to an end
  17. Psalm 59:13 Or is Ruler
  18. Psalm 59:15 Lit to eat
  19. Psalm 59:15 Another reading is linger all night
  20. Psalm 59:17 Lit God of my favor

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