Israel Asks for a King

When Samuel grew old, he appointed(A) his sons as Israel’s leaders.[a] The name of his firstborn was Joel and the name of his second was Abijah,(B) and they served at Beersheba.(C) But his sons(D) did not follow his ways. They turned aside(E) after dishonest gain and accepted bribes(F) and perverted(G) justice.

So all the elders(H) of Israel gathered together and came to Samuel at Ramah.(I) They said to him, “You are old, and your sons do not follow your ways; now appoint a king(J) to lead[b](K) us, such as all the other nations(L) have.”

But when they said, “Give us a king(M) to lead us,” this displeased(N) Samuel; so he prayed to the Lord. And the Lord told him: “Listen(O) to all that the people are saying to you; it is not you they have rejected,(P) but they have rejected me as their king.(Q) As they have done from the day I brought them up out of Egypt until this day, forsaking(R) me and serving other gods, so they are doing to you. Now listen to them; but warn them solemnly and let them know(S) what the king who will reign over them will claim as his rights.”

10 Samuel told(T) all the words of the Lord to the people who were asking him for a king. 11 He said, “This is what the king who will reign over you will claim as his rights: He will take(U) your sons and make them serve(V) with his chariots and horses, and they will run in front of his chariots.(W) 12 Some he will assign to be commanders(X) of thousands and commanders of fifties, and others to plow his ground and reap his harvest, and still others to make weapons of war and equipment for his chariots. 13 He will take your daughters to be perfumers and cooks and bakers. 14 He will take the best of your(Y) fields and vineyards(Z) and olive groves and give them to his attendants.(AA) 15 He will take a tenth(AB) of your grain and of your vintage and give it to his officials and attendants. 16 Your male and female servants and the best of your cattle[c] and donkeys he will take for his own use. 17 He will take a tenth of your flocks, and you yourselves will become his slaves. 18 When that day comes, you will cry out for relief from the king you have chosen, but the Lord will not answer(AC) you in that day.(AD)

19 But the people refused(AE) to listen to Samuel. “No!” they said. “We want(AF) a king(AG) over us. 20 Then we will be like all the other nations,(AH) with a king to lead us and to go out before us and fight our battles.”

21 When Samuel heard all that the people said, he repeated(AI) it before the Lord. 22 The Lord answered, “Listen(AJ) to them and give them a king.”

Then Samuel said to the Israelites, “Everyone go back to your own town.”

Samuel Anoints Saul

There was a Benjamite,(AK) a man of standing,(AL) whose name was Kish(AM) son of Abiel, the son of Zeror, the son of Bekorath, the son of Aphiah of Benjamin. Kish had a son named Saul, as handsome(AN) a young man as could be found(AO) anywhere in Israel, and he was a head taller(AP) than anyone else.

Now the donkeys(AQ) belonging to Saul’s father Kish were lost, and Kish said to his son Saul, “Take one of the servants with you and go and look for the donkeys.” So he passed through the hill(AR) country of Ephraim and through the area around Shalisha,(AS) but they did not find them. They went on into the district of Shaalim, but the donkeys(AT) were not there. Then he passed through the territory of Benjamin, but they did not find them.

When they reached the district of Zuph,(AU) Saul said to the servant who was with him, “Come, let’s go back, or my father will stop thinking about the donkeys and start worrying(AV) about us.”

But the servant replied, “Look, in this town there is a man of God;(AW) he is highly respected, and everything(AX) he says comes true. Let’s go there now. Perhaps he will tell us what way to take.”

Saul said to his servant, “If we go, what can we give the man? The food in our sacks is gone. We have no gift(AY) to take to the man of God. What do we have?”

The servant answered him again. “Look,” he said, “I have a quarter of a shekel[d] of silver. I will give it to the man of God so that he will tell us what way to take.” (Formerly in Israel, if someone went to inquire(AZ) of God, they would say, “Come, let us go to the seer,” because the prophet of today used to be called a seer.)(BA)

10 “Good,” Saul said to his servant. “Come, let’s go.” So they set out for the town where the man of God was.

11 As they were going up the hill to the town, they met some young women coming out to draw(BB) water, and they asked them, “Is the seer here?”

12 “He is,” they answered. “He’s ahead of you. Hurry now; he has just come to our town today, for the people have a sacrifice(BC) at the high place.(BD) 13 As soon as you enter the town, you will find him before he goes up to the high place to eat. The people will not begin eating until he comes, because he must bless(BE) the sacrifice; afterward, those who are invited will eat. Go up now; you should find him about this time.”

14 They went up to the town, and as they were entering it, there was Samuel, coming toward them on his way up to the high place.

15 Now the day before Saul came, the Lord had revealed this to Samuel: 16 “About this time tomorrow I will send you a man from the land of Benjamin. Anoint(BF) him ruler(BG) over my people Israel; he will deliver(BH) them from the hand of the Philistines.(BI) I have looked on my people, for their cry(BJ) has reached me.”

17 When Samuel caught sight of Saul, the Lord said to him, “This(BK) is the man I spoke to you about; he will govern my people.”

18 Saul approached Samuel in the gateway and asked, “Would you please tell me where the seer’s house is?”

19 “I am the seer,” Samuel replied. “Go up ahead of me to the high place, for today you are to eat with me, and in the morning I will send you on your way and will tell you all that is in your heart. 20 As for the donkeys(BL) you lost three days ago, do not worry about them; they have been found. And to whom is all the desire(BM) of Israel turned, if not to you and your whole family line?”

21 Saul answered, “But am I not a Benjamite, from the smallest tribe(BN) of Israel, and is not my clan the least(BO) of all the clans of the tribe of Benjamin?(BP) Why do you say such a thing to me?”

22 Then Samuel brought Saul and his servant into the hall and seated them at the head of those who were invited—about thirty in number. 23 Samuel said to the cook, “Bring the piece of meat I gave you, the one I told you to lay aside.”

24 So the cook took up the thigh(BQ) with what was on it and set it in front of Saul. Samuel said, “Here is what has been kept for you. Eat, because it was set aside for you for this occasion from the time I said, ‘I have invited guests.’” And Saul dined with Samuel that day.

25 After they came down from the high place to the town, Samuel talked with Saul on the roof(BR) of his house. 26 They rose about daybreak, and Samuel called to Saul on the roof, “Get ready, and I will send you on your way.” When Saul got ready, he and Samuel went outside together. 27 As they were going down to the edge of the town, Samuel said to Saul, “Tell the servant to go on ahead of us”—and the servant did so—“but you stay here for a while, so that I may give you a message from God.”

10 Then Samuel took a flask(BS) of olive oil and poured it on Saul’s head and kissed him, saying, “Has not the Lord anointed(BT) you ruler over his inheritance?[e](BU) When you leave me today, you will meet two men near Rachel’s tomb,(BV) at Zelzah on the border of Benjamin. They will say to you, ‘The donkeys(BW) you set out to look for have been found. And now your father has stopped thinking about them and is worried(BX) about you. He is asking, “What shall I do about my son?”’

“Then you will go on from there until you reach the great tree of Tabor. Three men going up to worship God at Bethel(BY) will meet you there. One will be carrying three young goats, another three loaves of bread, and another a skin of wine. They will greet you and offer you two loaves of bread,(BZ) which you will accept from them.

“After that you will go to Gibeah(CA) of God, where there is a Philistine outpost.(CB) As you approach the town, you will meet a procession of prophets(CC) coming down from the high place(CD) with lyres, timbrels,(CE) pipes(CF) and harps(CG) being played before them, and they will be prophesying.(CH) The Spirit(CI) of the Lord will come powerfully upon you, and you will prophesy with them; and you will be changed(CJ) into a different person. Once these signs are fulfilled, do whatever(CK) your hand(CL) finds to do, for God is with(CM) you.

“Go down ahead of me to Gilgal.(CN) I will surely come down to you to sacrifice burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, but you must wait seven(CO) days until I come to you and tell you what you are to do.”

Saul Made King

As Saul turned to leave Samuel, God changed(CP) Saul’s heart, and all these signs(CQ) were fulfilled(CR) that day. 10 When he and his servant arrived at Gibeah, a procession of prophets met him; the Spirit(CS) of God came powerfully upon him, and he joined in their prophesying.(CT) 11 When all those who had formerly known him saw him prophesying with the prophets, they asked each other, “What is this(CU) that has happened to the son of Kish? Is Saul also among the prophets?”(CV)

12 A man who lived there answered, “And who is their father?” So it became a saying: “Is Saul also among the prophets?”(CW) 13 After Saul stopped prophesying,(CX) he went to the high place.

14 Now Saul’s uncle(CY) asked him and his servant, “Where have you been?”

“Looking for the donkeys,(CZ)” he said. “But when we saw they were not to be found, we went to Samuel.”

15 Saul’s uncle said, “Tell me what Samuel said to you.”

16 Saul replied, “He assured us that the donkeys(DA) had been found.” But he did not tell his uncle what Samuel had said about the kingship.

17 Samuel summoned the people of Israel to the Lord at Mizpah(DB) 18 and said to them, “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: ‘I brought Israel up out of Egypt, and I delivered you from the power of Egypt and all the kingdoms that oppressed(DC) you.’ 19 But you have now rejected(DD) your God, who saves(DE) you out of all your disasters and calamities. And you have said, ‘No, appoint a king(DF) over us.’(DG) So now present(DH) yourselves before the Lord by your tribes and clans.”

20 When Samuel had all Israel come forward by tribes, the tribe of Benjamin was taken by lot. 21 Then he brought forward the tribe of Benjamin, clan by clan, and Matri’s clan was taken.(DI) Finally Saul son of Kish was taken. But when they looked for him, he was not to be found. 22 So they inquired(DJ) further of the Lord, “Has the man come here yet?”

And the Lord said, “Yes, he has hidden himself among the supplies.”

23 They ran and brought him out, and as he stood among the people he was a head taller(DK) than any of the others. 24 Samuel said to all the people, “Do you see the man the Lord has chosen?(DL) There is no one like(DM) him among all the people.”

Then the people shouted, “Long live(DN) the king!”

25 Samuel explained(DO) to the people the rights and duties(DP) of kingship.(DQ) He wrote them down on a scroll and deposited it before the Lord. Then Samuel dismissed the people to go to their own homes.

26 Saul also went to his home in Gibeah,(DR) accompanied by valiant men(DS) whose hearts God had touched. 27 But some scoundrels(DT) said, “How can this fellow save us?” They despised him and brought him no gifts.(DU) But Saul kept silent.

Saul Rescues the City of Jabesh

11 Nahash[f](DV) the Ammonite went up and besieged Jabesh Gilead.(DW) And all the men of Jabesh said to him, “Make a treaty(DX) with us, and we will be subject to you.”

But Nahash the Ammonite replied, “I will make a treaty with you only on the condition(DY) that I gouge(DZ) out the right eye of every one of you and so bring disgrace(EA) on all Israel.”

The elders(EB) of Jabesh said to him, “Give us seven days so we can send messengers throughout Israel; if no one comes to rescue(EC) us, we will surrender(ED) to you.”

When the messengers came to Gibeah(EE) of Saul and reported these terms to the people, they all wept(EF) aloud. Just then Saul was returning from the fields, behind his oxen, and he asked, “What is wrong with everyone? Why are they weeping?” Then they repeated to him what the men of Jabesh had said.

When Saul heard their words, the Spirit(EG) of God came powerfully upon him, and he burned with anger. He took a pair of oxen,(EH) cut them into pieces, and sent the pieces by messengers throughout Israel,(EI) proclaiming, “This is what will be done to the oxen of anyone(EJ) who does not follow Saul and Samuel.” Then the terror of the Lord fell on the people, and they came out together as one.(EK) When Saul mustered(EL) them at Bezek,(EM) the men of Israel numbered three hundred thousand and those of Judah thirty thousand.

They told the messengers who had come, “Say to the men of Jabesh Gilead, ‘By the time the sun is hot tomorrow, you will be rescued.’” When the messengers went and reported this to the men of Jabesh, they were elated. 10 They said to the Ammonites, “Tomorrow we will surrender(EN) to you, and you can do to us whatever you like.”

11 The next day Saul separated his men into three divisions;(EO) during the last watch of the night they broke into the camp of the Ammonites(EP) and slaughtered them until the heat of the day. Those who survived were scattered, so that no two of them were left together.

Saul Confirmed as King

12 The people then said to Samuel, “Who(EQ) was it that asked, ‘Shall Saul reign over us?’ Turn these men over to us so that we may put them to death.”

13 But Saul said, “No one will be put to death today,(ER) for this day the Lord has rescued(ES) Israel.”

14 Then Samuel said to the people, “Come, let us go to Gilgal(ET) and there renew the kingship.(EU) 15 So all the people went to Gilgal(EV) and made Saul king(EW) in the presence of the Lord. There they sacrificed fellowship offerings before the Lord, and Saul and all the Israelites held a great celebration.

Samuel’s Farewell Speech

12 Samuel said to all Israel, “I have listened(EX) to everything you said to me and have set a king(EY) over you. Now you have a king as your leader.(EZ) As for me, I am old and gray, and my sons(FA) are here with you. I have been your leader from my youth until this day. Here I stand. Testify against me in the presence of the Lord and his anointed.(FB) Whose ox have I taken? Whose donkey(FC) have I taken? Whom have I cheated? Whom have I oppressed? From whose hand have I accepted a bribe(FD) to make me shut my eyes? If I have done(FE) any of these things, I will make it right.”(FF)

“You have not cheated or oppressed us,” they replied. “You have not taken anything from anyone’s hand.”

Samuel said to them, “The Lord is witness(FG) against you, and also his anointed is witness this day, that you have not found anything(FH) in my hand.(FI)

“He is witness,” they said.

Then Samuel said to the people, “It is the Lord who appointed Moses and Aaron and brought(FJ) your ancestors up out of Egypt. Now then, stand(FK) here, because I am going to confront(FL) you with evidence before the Lord as to all the righteous acts(FM) performed by the Lord for you and your ancestors.

“After Jacob(FN) entered Egypt, they cried(FO) to the Lord for help, and the Lord sent(FP) Moses and Aaron, who brought your ancestors out of Egypt and settled them in this place.

“But they forgot(FQ) the Lord their God; so he sold them(FR) into the hand of Sisera,(FS) the commander of the army of Hazor,(FT) and into the hands of the Philistines(FU) and the king of Moab,(FV) who fought against them. 10 They cried(FW) out to the Lord and said, ‘We have sinned; we have forsaken(FX) the Lord and served the Baals and the Ashtoreths.(FY) But now deliver us from the hands of our enemies, and we will serve you.’ 11 Then the Lord sent Jerub-Baal,[g](FZ) Barak,[h](GA) Jephthah(GB) and Samuel,[i](GC) and he delivered you from the hands of your enemies all around you, so that you lived in safety.

12 “But when you saw that Nahash(GD) king(GE) of the Ammonites was moving against you, you said to me, ‘No, we want a king to rule(GF) over us’—even though the Lord your God was your king. 13 Now here is the king(GG) you have chosen, the one you asked(GH) for; see, the Lord has set a king over you. 14 If you fear(GI) the Lord and serve and obey him and do not rebel(GJ) against his commands, and if both you and the king who reigns over you follow the Lord your God—good! 15 But if you do not obey the Lord, and if you rebel against(GK) his commands, his hand will be against you, as it was against your ancestors.

16 “Now then, stand still(GL) and see(GM) this great thing the Lord is about to do before your eyes! 17 Is it not wheat harvest(GN) now? I will call(GO) on the Lord to send thunder(GP) and rain.(GQ) And you will realize what an evil(GR) thing you did in the eyes of the Lord when you asked for a king.”

18 Then Samuel called on the Lord,(GS) and that same day the Lord sent thunder and rain. So all the people stood in awe(GT) of the Lord and of Samuel.

19 The people all said to Samuel, “Pray(GU) to the Lord your God for your servants so that we will not die,(GV) for we have added to all our other sins the evil of asking for a king.”

20 “Do not be afraid,” Samuel replied. “You have done all this evil;(GW) yet do not turn away from the Lord, but serve the Lord with all your heart. 21 Do not turn away after useless(GX) idols.(GY) They can do you no good, nor can they rescue you, because they are useless. 22 For the sake(GZ) of his great name(HA) the Lord will not reject(HB) his people, because the Lord was pleased to make(HC) you his own. 23 As for me, far be it from me that I should sin against the Lord by failing to pray(HD) for you. And I will teach(HE) you the way that is good and right. 24 But be sure to fear(HF) the Lord and serve him faithfully with all your heart;(HG) consider(HH) what great(HI) things he has done for you. 25 Yet if you persist(HJ) in doing evil, both you and your king(HK) will perish.”(HL)

Samuel Rebukes Saul

13 Saul was thirty[j] years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel forty-[k] two years.

Saul chose three thousand men from Israel; two thousand(HM) were with him at Mikmash(HN) and in the hill country of Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan at Gibeah(HO) in Benjamin. The rest of the men he sent back to their homes.

Jonathan attacked the Philistine outpost(HP) at Geba,(HQ) and the Philistines heard about it. Then Saul had the trumpet(HR) blown throughout the land and said, “Let the Hebrews hear!” So all Israel heard the news: “Saul has attacked the Philistine outpost, and now Israel has become obnoxious(HS) to the Philistines.” And the people were summoned to join Saul at Gilgal.

The Philistines assembled(HT) to fight Israel, with three thousand[l] chariots, six thousand charioteers, and soldiers as numerous as the sand(HU) on the seashore. They went up and camped at Mikmash,(HV) east of Beth Aven.(HW) When the Israelites saw that their situation was critical and that their army was hard pressed, they hid(HX) in caves and thickets, among the rocks, and in pits and cisterns.(HY) Some Hebrews even crossed the Jordan to the land of Gad(HZ) and Gilead.

Saul remained at Gilgal, and all the troops with him were quaking(IA) with fear. He waited seven(IB) days, the time set by Samuel; but Samuel did not come to Gilgal, and Saul’s men began to scatter. So he said, “Bring me the burnt offering and the fellowship offerings.” And Saul offered(IC) up the burnt offering. 10 Just as he finished making the offering, Samuel(ID) arrived, and Saul went out to greet(IE) him.

11 “What have you done?” asked Samuel.

Saul replied, “When I saw that the men were scattering, and that you did not come at the set time, and that the Philistines were assembling at Mikmash,(IF) 12 I thought, ‘Now the Philistines will come down against me at Gilgal,(IG) and I have not sought the Lord’s favor.(IH)’ So I felt compelled to offer the burnt offering.”

13 “You have done a foolish thing,(II)” Samuel said. “You have not kept(IJ) the command the Lord your God gave you; if you had, he would have established your kingdom over Israel for all time.(IK) 14 But now your kingdom(IL) will not endure; the Lord has sought out a man after his own heart(IM) and appointed(IN) him ruler(IO) of his people, because you have not kept(IP) the Lord’s command.”

15 Then Samuel left Gilgal[m] and went up to Gibeah(IQ) in Benjamin, and Saul counted the men who were with him. They numbered about six hundred.(IR)

Israel Without Weapons

16 Saul and his son Jonathan and the men with them were staying in Gibeah[n](IS) in Benjamin, while the Philistines camped at Mikmash. 17 Raiding(IT) parties went out from the Philistine camp in three detachments. One turned toward Ophrah(IU) in the vicinity of Shual, 18 another toward Beth Horon,(IV) and the third toward the borderland overlooking the Valley of Zeboyim(IW) facing the wilderness.

19 Not a blacksmith(IX) could be found in the whole land of Israel, because the Philistines had said, “Otherwise the Hebrews will make swords or spears!(IY) 20 So all Israel went down to the Philistines to have their plow points, mattocks, axes and sickles[o] sharpened. 21 The price was two-thirds of a shekel[p] for sharpening plow points and mattocks, and a third of a shekel[q] for sharpening forks and axes and for repointing goads.

22 So on the day of the battle not a soldier with Saul and Jonathan(IZ) had a sword or spear(JA) in his hand; only Saul and his son Jonathan had them.

Jonathan Attacks the Philistines

23 Now a detachment of Philistines had gone out to the pass(JB) at Mikmash.(JC) 14 One day Jonathan son of Saul said to his young armor-bearer, “Come, let’s go over to the Philistine outpost on the other side.” But he did not tell his father.

Saul was staying(JD) on the outskirts of Gibeah(JE) under a pomegranate tree(JF) in Migron.(JG) With him were about six hundred men, among whom was Ahijah, who was wearing an ephod. He was a son of Ichabod’s(JH) brother Ahitub(JI) son of Phinehas, the son of Eli,(JJ) the Lord’s priest in Shiloh.(JK) No one was aware that Jonathan had left.

On each side of the pass(JL) that Jonathan intended to cross to reach the Philistine outpost was a cliff; one was called Bozez and the other Seneh. One cliff stood to the north toward Mikmash, the other to the south toward Geba.(JM)

Jonathan said to his young armor-bearer, “Come, let’s go over to the outpost of those uncircumcised(JN) men. Perhaps the Lord will act in our behalf. Nothing(JO) can hinder the Lord from saving, whether by many(JP) or by few.(JQ)

“Do all that you have in mind,” his armor-bearer said. “Go ahead; I am with you heart and soul.”

Jonathan said, “Come on, then; we will cross over toward them and let them see us. If they say to us, ‘Wait there until we come to you,’ we will stay where we are and not go up to them. 10 But if they say, ‘Come up to us,’ we will climb up, because that will be our sign(JR) that the Lord has given them into our hands.(JS)

11 So both of them showed themselves to the Philistine outpost. “Look!” said the Philistines. “The Hebrews(JT) are crawling out of the holes they were hiding(JU) in.” 12 The men of the outpost shouted to Jonathan and his armor-bearer, “Come up to us and we’ll teach you a lesson.(JV)

So Jonathan said to his armor-bearer, “Climb up after me; the Lord has given them into the hand(JW) of Israel.”

13 Jonathan climbed up, using his hands and feet, with his armor-bearer right behind him. The Philistines fell before Jonathan, and his armor-bearer followed and killed behind him. 14 In that first attack Jonathan and his armor-bearer killed some twenty men in an area of about half an acre.

Israel Routs the Philistines

15 Then panic(JX) struck the whole army—those in the camp and field, and those in the outposts and raiding(JY) parties—and the ground shook. It was a panic sent by God.[r]

16 Saul’s lookouts(JZ) at Gibeah in Benjamin saw the army melting away in all directions. 17 Then Saul said to the men who were with him, “Muster the forces and see who has left us.” When they did, it was Jonathan and his armor-bearer who were not there.

18 Saul said to Ahijah, “Bring(KA) the ark(KB) of God.” (At that time it was with the Israelites.)[s] 19 While Saul was talking to the priest, the tumult in the Philistine camp increased more and more. So Saul said to the priest,(KC) “Withdraw your hand.”

20 Then Saul and all his men assembled and went to the battle. They found the Philistines in total confusion, striking(KD) each other with their swords. 21 Those Hebrews who had previously been with the Philistines and had gone up with them to their camp went(KE) over to the Israelites who were with Saul and Jonathan. 22 When all the Israelites who had hidden(KF) in the hill country of Ephraim heard that the Philistines were on the run, they joined the battle in hot pursuit. 23 So on that day the Lord saved(KG) Israel, and the battle moved on beyond Beth Aven.(KH)

Jonathan Eats Honey

24 Now the Israelites were in distress that day, because Saul had bound the people under an oath,(KI) saying, “Cursed be anyone who eats food before evening comes, before I have avenged myself on my enemies!” So none of the troops tasted food.

25 The entire army entered the woods, and there was honey on the ground. 26 When they went into the woods, they saw the honey oozing out; yet no one put his hand to his mouth, because they feared the oath. 27 But Jonathan had not heard that his father had bound the people with the oath, so he reached out the end of the staff that was in his hand and dipped it into the honeycomb.(KJ) He raised his hand to his mouth, and his eyes brightened.[t] 28 Then one of the soldiers told him, “Your father bound the army under a strict oath, saying, ‘Cursed be anyone who eats food today!’ That is why the men are faint.”

29 Jonathan said, “My father has made trouble(KK) for the country. See how my eyes brightened when I tasted a little of this honey. 30 How much better it would have been if the men had eaten today some of the plunder they took from their enemies. Would not the slaughter of the Philistines have been even greater?”

31 That day, after the Israelites had struck down the Philistines from Mikmash(KL) to Aijalon,(KM) they were exhausted. 32 They pounced on the plunder(KN) and, taking sheep, cattle and calves, they butchered them on the ground and ate them, together with the blood.(KO) 33 Then someone said to Saul, “Look, the men are sinning against the Lord by eating meat that has blood(KP) in it.”

“You have broken faith,” he said. “Roll a large stone over here at once.” 34 Then he said, “Go out among the men and tell them, ‘Each of you bring me your cattle and sheep, and slaughter them here and eat them. Do not sin against the Lord by eating meat with blood still(KQ) in it.’”

So everyone brought his ox that night and slaughtered it there. 35 Then Saul built an altar(KR) to the Lord; it was the first time he had done this.

36 Saul said, “Let us go down and pursue the Philistines by night and plunder them till dawn, and let us not leave one of them alive.”

“Do whatever seems best to you,” they replied.

But the priest said, “Let us inquire(KS) of God here.”

37 So Saul asked God, “Shall I go down and pursue the Philistines? Will you give them into Israel’s hand?” But God did not answer(KT) him that day.

38 Saul therefore said, “Come here, all you who are leaders of the army, and let us find out what sin has been committed(KU) today. 39 As surely as the Lord who rescues Israel lives,(KV) even if the guilt lies with my son Jonathan,(KW) he must die.”(KX) But not one of them said a word.

40 Saul then said to all the Israelites, “You stand over there; I and Jonathan my son will stand over here.”

“Do what seems best to you,” they replied.

41 Then Saul prayed to the Lord, the God of Israel, “Why have you not answered your servant today? If the fault is in me or my son Jonathan, respond with Urim, but if the men of Israel are at fault,[u] respond with Thummim.” Jonathan and Saul were taken by lot, and the men were cleared. 42 Saul said, “Cast the lot(KY) between me and Jonathan my son.” And Jonathan was taken.

43 Then Saul said to Jonathan, “Tell me what you have done.”(KZ)

So Jonathan told him, “I tasted a little honey(LA) with the end of my staff. And now I must die!”

44 Saul said, “May God deal with me, be it ever so severely,(LB) if you do not die, Jonathan.(LC)

45 But the men said to Saul, “Should Jonathan die—he who has brought about this great deliverance in Israel? Never! As surely as the Lord lives, not a hair(LD) of his head will fall to the ground, for he did this today with God’s help.” So the men rescued(LE) Jonathan, and he was not put to death.

46 Then Saul stopped pursuing the Philistines, and they withdrew to their own land.

47 After Saul had assumed rule over Israel, he fought against their enemies on every side: Moab,(LF) the Ammonites,(LG) Edom,(LH) the kings[v] of Zobah,(LI) and the Philistines. Wherever he turned, he inflicted punishment on them.[w] 48 He fought valiantly and defeated the Amalekites,(LJ) delivering Israel from the hands of those who had plundered them.

Saul’s Family

49 Saul’s sons were Jonathan, Ishvi and Malki-Shua.(LK) The name of his older daughter was Merab, and that of the younger was Michal.(LL) 50 His wife’s name was Ahinoam daughter of Ahimaaz. The name of the commander of Saul’s army was Abner(LM) son of Ner, and Ner was Saul’s uncle.(LN) 51 Saul’s father Kish(LO) and Abner’s father Ner were sons of Abiel.

52 All the days of Saul there was bitter war with the Philistines, and whenever Saul saw a mighty or brave man, he took(LP) him into his service.

The Lord Rejects Saul as King

15 Samuel said to Saul, “I am the one the Lord sent to anoint(LQ) you king over his people Israel; so listen now to the message from the Lord. This is what the Lord Almighty says: ‘I will punish the Amalekites(LR) for what they did to Israel when they waylaid them as they came up from Egypt. Now go, attack the Amalekites and totally(LS) destroy[x] all that belongs to them. Do not spare them; put to death men and women, children and infants, cattle and sheep, camels and donkeys.’”

So Saul summoned the men and mustered them at Telaim—two hundred thousand foot soldiers and ten thousand from Judah. Saul went to the city of Amalek and set an ambush in the ravine. Then he said to the Kenites,(LT) “Go away, leave the Amalekites so that I do not destroy you along with them; for you showed kindness to all the Israelites when they came up out of Egypt.” So the Kenites moved away from the Amalekites.

Then Saul attacked the Amalekites(LU) all the way from Havilah to Shur,(LV) near the eastern border of Egypt. He took Agag(LW) king of the Amalekites alive,(LX) and all his people he totally destroyed with the sword. But Saul and the army spared(LY) Agag and the best of the sheep and cattle, the fat calves[y] and lambs—everything that was good. These they were unwilling to destroy completely, but everything that was despised and weak they totally destroyed.

10 Then the word of the Lord came to Samuel: 11 “I regret(LZ) that I have made Saul king, because he has turned(MA) away from me and has not carried out my instructions.”(MB) Samuel was angry,(MC) and he cried out to the Lord all that night.

12 Early in the morning Samuel got up and went to meet Saul, but he was told, “Saul has gone to Carmel.(MD) There he has set up a monument(ME) in his own honor and has turned and gone on down to Gilgal.”

13 When Samuel reached him, Saul said, “The Lord bless you! I have carried out the Lord’s instructions.”

14 But Samuel said, “What then is this bleating of sheep in my ears? What is this lowing of cattle that I hear?”

15 Saul answered, “The soldiers brought them from the Amalekites; they spared the best of the sheep and cattle to sacrifice to the Lord your God, but we totally destroyed the rest.”

16 “Enough!” Samuel said to Saul. “Let me tell you what the Lord said to me last night.”

“Tell me,” Saul replied.

17 Samuel said, “Although you were once small(MF) in your own eyes, did you not become the head of the tribes of Israel? The Lord anointed you king over Israel. 18 And he sent you on a mission, saying, ‘Go and completely destroy those wicked people, the Amalekites; wage war against them until you have wiped them out.’ 19 Why did you not obey the Lord? Why did you pounce on the plunder(MG) and do evil in the eyes of the Lord?”

20 “But I did obey(MH) the Lord,” Saul said. “I went on the mission the Lord assigned me. I completely destroyed the Amalekites and brought back Agag their king. 21 The soldiers took sheep and cattle from the plunder, the best of what was devoted to God, in order to sacrifice them to the Lord your God at Gilgal.”

22 But Samuel replied:

“Does the Lord delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices
    as much as in obeying the Lord?
To obey is better than sacrifice,(MI)
    and to heed is better than the fat of rams.
23 For rebellion is like the sin of divination,(MJ)
    and arrogance like the evil of idolatry.
Because you have rejected(MK) the word of the Lord,
    he has rejected you as king.”

24 Then Saul said to Samuel, “I have sinned.(ML) I violated(MM) the Lord’s command and your instructions. I was afraid(MN) of the men and so I gave in to them. 25 Now I beg you, forgive(MO) my sin and come back with me, so that I may worship the Lord.”

26 But Samuel said to him, “I will not go back with you. You have rejected(MP) the word of the Lord, and the Lord has rejected you as king over Israel!”

27 As Samuel turned to leave, Saul caught hold of the hem of his robe,(MQ) and it tore.(MR) 28 Samuel said to him, “The Lord has torn(MS) the kingdom(MT) of Israel from you today and has given it to one of your neighbors—to one better than you.(MU) 29 He who is the Glory of Israel does not lie(MV) or change(MW) his mind; for he is not a human being, that he should change his mind.”

30 Saul replied, “I have sinned.(MX) But please honor(MY) me before the elders of my people and before Israel; come back with me, so that I may worship the Lord your God.” 31 So Samuel went back with Saul, and Saul worshiped the Lord.

32 Then Samuel said, “Bring me Agag king of the Amalekites.”

Agag came to him in chains.[z] And he thought, “Surely the bitterness of death is past.”

33 But Samuel said,

“As your sword has made women childless,
    so will your mother be childless among women.”(MZ)

And Samuel put Agag to death before the Lord at Gilgal.

34 Then Samuel left for Ramah,(NA) but Saul went up to his home in Gibeah(NB) of Saul. 35 Until the day Samuel(NC) died, he did not go to see Saul again, though Samuel mourned(ND) for him. And the Lord regretted(NE) that he had made Saul king over Israel.

Samuel Anoints David

16 The Lord said to Samuel, “How long will you mourn(NF) for Saul, since I have rejected(NG) him as king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil(NH) and be on your way; I am sending you to Jesse(NI) of Bethlehem. I have chosen(NJ) one of his sons to be king.”

But Samuel said, “How can I go? If Saul hears about it, he will kill me.”

The Lord said, “Take a heifer with you and say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.’ Invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show(NK) you what to do. You are to anoint(NL) for me the one I indicate.”

Samuel did what the Lord said. When he arrived at Bethlehem,(NM) the elders of the town trembled(NN) when they met him. They asked, “Do you come in peace?(NO)

Samuel replied, “Yes, in peace; I have come to sacrifice to the Lord. Consecrate(NP) yourselves and come to the sacrifice with me.” Then he consecrated Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice.

When they arrived, Samuel saw Eliab(NQ) and thought, “Surely the Lord’s anointed stands here before the Lord.”

But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not consider his appearance or his height, for I have rejected him. The Lord does not look at the things people look at. People look at the outward appearance,(NR) but the Lord looks at the heart.”(NS)

Then Jesse called Abinadab(NT) and had him pass in front of Samuel. But Samuel said, “The Lord has not chosen this one either.” Jesse then had Shammah(NU) pass by, but Samuel said, “Nor has the Lord chosen this one.” 10 Jesse had seven of his sons pass before Samuel, but Samuel said to him, “The Lord has not chosen these.” 11 So he asked Jesse, “Are these all(NV) the sons you have?”

“There is still the youngest,” Jesse answered. “He is tending the sheep.”(NW)

Samuel said, “Send for him; we will not sit down until he arrives.”

12 So he(NX) sent for him and had him brought in. He was glowing with health and had a fine appearance and handsome(NY) features.

Then the Lord said, “Rise and anoint him; this is the one.”

13 So Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed(NZ) him in the presence of his brothers, and from that day on the Spirit of the Lord(OA) came powerfully upon David.(OB) Samuel then went to Ramah.

David in Saul’s Service

14 Now the Spirit of the Lord had departed(OC) from Saul, and an evil[aa] spirit(OD) from the Lord tormented him.(OE)

15 Saul’s attendants said to him, “See, an evil spirit from God is tormenting you. 16 Let our lord command his servants here to search for someone who can play the lyre.(OF) He will play when the evil spirit from God comes on you, and you will feel better.”

17 So Saul said to his attendants, “Find someone who plays well and bring him to me.”

18 One of the servants answered, “I have seen a son of Jesse(OG) of Bethlehem who knows how to play the lyre. He is a brave man and a warrior.(OH) He speaks well and is a fine-looking man. And the Lord is with(OI) him.”

19 Then Saul sent messengers to Jesse and said, “Send me your son David, who is with the sheep.(OJ) 20 So Jesse took a donkey loaded with bread,(OK) a skin of wine and a young goat and sent them with his son David to Saul.

21 David came to Saul and entered his service.(OL) Saul liked him very much, and David became one of his armor-bearers. 22 Then Saul sent word to Jesse, saying, “Allow David to remain in my service, for I am pleased with him.”

23 Whenever the spirit from God came on Saul, David would take up his lyre and play. Then relief would come to Saul; he would feel better, and the evil spirit(OM) would leave him.


  1. 1 Samuel 8:1 Traditionally judges
  2. 1 Samuel 8:5 Traditionally judge; also in verses 6 and 20
  3. 1 Samuel 8:16 Septuagint; Hebrew young men
  4. 1 Samuel 9:8 That is, about 1/10 ounce or about 3 grams
  5. 1 Samuel 10:1 Hebrew; Septuagint and Vulgate over his people Israel? You will reign over the Lord’s people and save them from the power of their enemies round about. And this will be a sign to you that the Lord has anointed you ruler over his inheritance:
  6. 1 Samuel 11:1 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls gifts. Now Nahash king of the Ammonites oppressed the Gadites and Reubenites severely. He gouged out all their right eyes and struck terror and dread in Israel. Not a man remained among the Israelites beyond the Jordan whose right eye was not gouged out by Nahash king of the Ammonites, except that seven thousand men fled from the Ammonites and entered Jabesh Gilead. About a month later, Nahash
  7. 1 Samuel 12:11 Also called Gideon
  8. 1 Samuel 12:11 Some Septuagint manuscripts and Syriac; Hebrew Bedan
  9. 1 Samuel 12:11 Hebrew; some Septuagint manuscripts and Syriac Samson
  10. 1 Samuel 13:1 A few late manuscripts of the Septuagint; Hebrew does not have thirty.
  11. 1 Samuel 13:1 Probable reading of the original Hebrew text (see Acts 13:21); Masoretic Text does not have forty-.
  12. 1 Samuel 13:5 Some Septuagint manuscripts and Syriac; Hebrew thirty thousand
  13. 1 Samuel 13:15 Hebrew; Septuagint Gilgal and went his way; the rest of the people went after Saul to meet the army, and they went out of Gilgal
  14. 1 Samuel 13:16 Two Hebrew manuscripts; most Hebrew manuscripts Geba, a variant of Gibeah
  15. 1 Samuel 13:20 Septuagint; Hebrew plow points
  16. 1 Samuel 13:21 That is, about 1/4 ounce or about 8 grams
  17. 1 Samuel 13:21 That is, about 1/8 ounce or about 4 grams
  18. 1 Samuel 14:15 Or a terrible panic
  19. 1 Samuel 14:18 Hebrew; Septuagint “Bring the ephod.” (At that time he wore the ephod before the Israelites.)
  20. 1 Samuel 14:27 Or his strength was renewed; similarly in verse 29
  21. 1 Samuel 14:41 Septuagint; Hebrew does not have “Why … at fault.
  22. 1 Samuel 14:47 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls and Septuagint king
  23. 1 Samuel 14:47 Hebrew; Septuagint he was victorious
  24. 1 Samuel 15:3 The Hebrew term refers to the irrevocable giving over of things or persons to the Lord, often by totally destroying them; also in verses 8, 9, 15, 18, 20 and 21.
  25. 1 Samuel 15:9 Or the grown bulls; the meaning of the Hebrew for this phrase is uncertain.
  26. 1 Samuel 15:32 The meaning of the Hebrew for this phrase is uncertain.
  27. 1 Samuel 16:14 Or and a harmful; similarly in verses 15, 16 and 23