War with the Philistines

13 Saul was [a]thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned for [b]forty-two years over Israel.

Now Saul chose for himself three thousand men of Israel, of whom two thousand were with Saul in (A)Michmash and in the hill country of Bethel, while a thousand were with Jonathan at (B)Gibeah of Benjamin. But he sent the rest of the people away, each to his tent. And Jonathan attacked (C)the garrison of the Philistines that was in (D)Geba, and the Philistines heard about it. Then Saul (E)blew the trumpet throughout the land, saying, “Let the Hebrews hear!” And all Israel heard [c]the news that Saul had attacked the garrison of the Philistines, and also that Israel (F)had become repulsive to the Philistines. Then the people were summoned [d]to Saul at Gilgal.

Now the Philistines assembled to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots and six thousand horsemen, and (G)people like the sand which is on the seashore in abundance; and they came up and camped in Michmash, east of (H)Beth-aven. When the men of Israel saw that they were in trouble (for the people were hard-pressed), then (I)the people kept themselves hidden in caves, in crevices, in cliffs, in crypts, and in pits. And some of the Hebrews crossed the Jordan into the land of (J)Gad and Gilead. But as for Saul, he was still in Gilgal, and all the people followed him, trembling.

Now (K)he waited for seven days, until the appointed time that Samuel had set, but Samuel did not come to Gilgal; and the people were scattering from him. So Saul said, “Bring me the burnt offering and the peace offerings.” And (L)he offered the burnt offering. 10 But as soon as he finished offering the burnt offering, behold, Samuel came; and (M)Saul went out to meet him and to [e]greet him. 11 But Samuel said, “What have you done?” And Saul said, “Since I saw that the people were scattering from me, and that you did not come at the appointed [f]time, and that (N)the Philistines were assembling at Michmash, 12 I [g]thought, ‘Now the Philistines will come down against me at Gilgal, and I have not [h]asked the favor of the Lord.’ So I worked up the courage and offered the burnt offering.” 13 But Samuel said to Saul, “(O)You have acted foolishly! (P)You have not kept the commandment of the Lord your God, which He commanded you, for the Lord would now have established your kingdom [i]over Israel (Q)forever. 14 But (R)now your kingdom shall not endure. (S)The Lord has sought for Himself a man [j]after His own heart, and the Lord has appointed him ruler over His people, because you have not kept what the Lord commanded you.”

15 Then Samuel set out and went up from Gilgal to (T)Gibeah of Benjamin. And Saul [k]counted the people who were [l]present with him, (U)about six hundred men. 16 Now Saul, his son Jonathan, and the people who were [m]present with them were staying in (V)Geba of Benjamin while the Philistines camped at Michmash. 17 Then (W)[n]raiders came from the camp of the Philistines in three [o]companies: one [p]company turned [q]toward (X)Ophrah, to the land of Shual, 18 and another [r]company turned [s]toward (Y)Beth-horon, and another [t]company turned [u]toward the border that overlooks the Valley of (Z)Zeboim toward the wilderness.

19 Now (AA)no blacksmith could be found in all the land of Israel, because the Philistines said, “Otherwise the Hebrews will make [v](AB)swords or spears.” 20 So all Israel went down to the Philistines, each to sharpen his plowshare, his mattock, his axe, and his hoe. 21 The charge was [w]two-thirds of a shekel for the plowshares, the mattocks, the forks, and the axes, and to fix the [x]cattle goads. 22 So it came about on the day of battle that (AC)neither sword nor spear was found in the hands of any of the people who were with Saul and Jonathan, but they were found with Saul and his son Jonathan. 23 And (AD)the garrison of the Philistines went out to (AE)the gorge of Michmash.

Jonathan’s Victory

14 Now the day came that Jonathan, the son of Saul, said to the young man who was carrying his armor, “Come, and let’s cross over to the Philistines’ garrison that is on the other side.” But he did not tell his father. Saul was staying on the outskirts of (AF)Gibeah under the pomegranate tree that is in (AG)Migron. And the people who were with him numbered (AH)about six hundred men; and Ahijah, the (AI)son of Ahitub, (AJ)Ichabod’s brother, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, the priest of the Lord at (AK)Shiloh, (AL)was [y]wearing an ephod. And the people did not know that Jonathan had gone. Now (AM)between the gorges by which Jonathan sought to cross over to the Philistines’ garrison there was a rocky crag on the one side, and a rocky crag on the other side; and the name of the one was Bozez, and the name of the other, Seneh. The one crag rose on the north opposite Michmash, and the other on the south opposite Geba.

Then Jonathan said to the young man who was carrying his armor, “Come, and let’s cross over to the garrison of (AN)these uncircumcised men; perhaps the Lord will work for us, because (AO)the Lord is not limited to saving by many or by few!” His armor bearer said to him, “Do everything that is in your heart; turn yourself to it, and here I am with you, as your heart desires.” Then Jonathan said, “(AP)Behold, we are going to cross over to the men and reveal ourselves to them. If they [z]say to us, ‘Wait until we come to you’; then we will stand in our place and not go up to them. 10 But if they [aa]say, ‘Come up to us,’ then we will go up, for the Lord has handed them over to us; and (AQ)this shall be the sign to us.” 11 When the two of them revealed themselves to the garrison of the Philistines, the Philistines said, “Behold, (AR)Hebrews are coming out of the holes where they have kept themselves hidden.” 12 So the men of the garrison responded to Jonathan and his armor bearer and said, “Come up to us and (AS)we will inform you of something.” And Jonathan said to his armor bearer, “Come up after me, for (AT)the Lord has handed them over to Israel.” 13 Then Jonathan climbed up on his hands and feet, with his armor bearer behind him; and the men fell before Jonathan, and his armor bearer put some to death after him. 14 Now that first slaughter which Jonathan and his armor bearer inflicted was about twenty men within about half a furrow in an acre of land. 15 And there was a trembling in the camp, in the field, and among all the people. Even the garrison and (AU)the raiders trembled, and (AV)the earth quaked so (AW)that it became a [ab]great trembling.

16 Now Saul’s watchmen in Gibeah of Benjamin looked, and behold, the multitude dissolved; they went here and there. 17 So Saul said to the people who were with him, “Look carefully now and see who has left us.” And when they had looked, behold, Jonathan and his armor bearer were not there. 18 Then Saul said to Ahijah, “(AX)Bring the ark of God here.” For at that time the ark of God was with the sons of Israel. 19 (AY)While Saul talked to the priest, the commotion in the camp of the Philistines continued and increased; so Saul said to the priest, “Withdraw your hand.” 20 Then Saul and all the people who were with him rallied and came to the battle; and behold, (AZ)every man’s sword was against his fellow Philistine, and there was very great confusion. 21 Now the Hebrews who were with the Philistines previously, who went up with them all around in the camp, even (BA)they also returned to be with the Israelites who were with Saul and Jonathan. 22 When all the (BB)men of Israel who had kept themselves hidden in the hill country of Ephraim heard that the Philistines had fled, they also closely pursued them in the battle. 23 So (BC)the Lord saved Israel that day, and the battle [ac]spread beyond (BD)Beth-aven.

Saul’s Foolish Order

24 Now the men of Israel were hard-pressed on that day, for Saul had (BE)put the people under oath, saying, “Cursed be the man who eats food [ad]before evening, and before I have avenged myself on my enemies.” So none of the people tasted food. 25 All the people of the land entered the forest, and there was honey on the ground. 26 When the people entered the forest, behold, (BF)there was honey dripping; but no man put his hand to his mouth, because the people feared the oath. 27 However, Jonathan had not heard it when his father put the people under oath; so (BG)he put out the end of the staff that was in his hand and dipped it in the honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth, and (BH)his eyes [ae]brightened. 28 Then one of the people responded and said, “Your father strictly put the people under oath, saying, ‘Cursed be the man who eats food today.’” And the people were weary. 29 Then Jonathan said, “(BI)My father has troubled the land. See now that my eyes have brightened because I tasted a little of this honey. 30 How much more, if only the people had freely eaten today of the spoils of their enemies which they found! For now the defeat among the Philistines has not been great.”

31 They attacked the Philistines that day from (BJ)Michmash to (BK)Aijalon. But the people were very tired. 32 So (BL)the people loudly rushed upon the spoils, and took sheep, oxen, and calves, and slaughtered them on the ground; and the people ate them (BM)with the blood. 33 Then observers informed Saul, saying, “Look, the people are (BN)sinning against the Lord by eating meat with the blood.” And he said, “You have acted treacherously; roll a large rock to me today.” 34 Then Saul said, “Disperse yourselves among the people and say to them, ‘Each one of you bring me his ox or his sheep, and slaughter it here and eat; and do not sin against the Lord by eating it with the blood.’” So all the people brought them that night, each one his ox [af]with him, and they slaughtered them there. 35 And (BO)Saul built an altar to the Lord; it was the first altar that he built to the Lord.

36 Then Saul said, “Let’s go down after the Philistines by night and take plunder among them until the morning light, and let’s not leave a man among them alive.” And they said, “Do whatever seems good [ag]to you.” So (BP)the priest said, “Let’s approach God here.” 37 So Saul (BQ)inquired of God: “Shall I go down after the Philistines? Will You hand them over to Israel?” But (BR)He did not answer him on that day. 38 Then Saul said, “(BS)[ah]Come here, all you [ai]leaders of the people, and investigate and see how this sin has happened today. 39 For (BT)as the Lord lives, who saves Israel, even if it is in my son Jonathan, he shall assuredly die!” But not one of all the people answered him. 40 Then he said to all Israel, “You shall be on one side, and I and my son Jonathan will be on the other side.” And the people said to Saul, “Do what seems good [aj]to you.” 41 Therefore, Saul said to the Lord, the God of Israel, “(BU)Give a [ak]perfect lot.” And Jonathan and Saul were selected by lot, but the people [al]were exonerated. 42 Then Saul said, “Cast lots between me and my son Jonathan.” And Jonathan was selected by lot.

43 So Saul said to Jonathan, “(BV)Tell me what you have done.” And Jonathan told him, and said, “(BW)I did indeed taste a little honey with the end of the staff that was in my hand. Here I am, I must die!” 44 And Saul said, “(BX)May God do the same to me and more also, for (BY)you shall certainly die, Jonathan!” 45 But the people said to Saul, “Must Jonathan die, he who has [am]brought about this great [an]victory in Israel? Far from it! As the Lord lives, (BZ)not even a hair of his head shall fall to the ground, because (CA)he has worked with God this day.” So the people [ao]rescued Jonathan and he did not die. 46 Then Saul went up from [ap]pursuing the Philistines, and the Philistines went to their own place.

Constant Warfare

47 Now when Saul had taken control of the kingdom over Israel, he fought against all his enemies on every side, against Moab, (CB)the sons of Ammon, Edom, (CC)the kings of Zobah, and (CD)the Philistines; and wherever he turned, he [aq]inflicted punishment. 48 And he acted valiantly and [ar](CE)defeated the Amalekites, and saved Israel from the hands of [as]those who plundered them.

49 Now (CF)the sons of Saul were Jonathan, Ishvi, and Malchi-shua; and the names of his two daughters were these: the name of the firstborn was (CG)Merab, and the name of the younger, (CH)Michal. 50 And the name of Saul’s wife was Ahinoam the daughter of Ahimaaz. And (CI)the name of the commander of his army was Abner the son of Ner, Saul’s uncle. 51 (CJ)Kish was the father of Saul, and Ner the father of Abner was the son of Abiel.

52 Now the war against the Philistines was severe all the days of Saul; and when Saul saw any warrior or any valiant man, he [at](CK)attached him to his staff.

Saul’s Disobedience

15 Then Samuel said to Saul, “(CL)The Lord sent me to anoint you as king over His people, over Israel; now therefore, listen to the [au]words of the Lord. This is what the Lord of armies says: ‘I will [av]punish Amalek (CM)for what he did to Israel, in that he obstructed him on the way while he was coming up from Egypt. Now go and strike Amalek and (CN)completely destroy everything that he has, and do not spare him; but (CO)put to death both man and woman, child and infant, ox and sheep, camel and donkey.’”

Then Saul summoned the people and [aw]counted them in (CP)Telaim: two hundred thousand foot soldiers and ten thousand men of Judah. And Saul came to the city of Amalek and set an ambush in the [ax]wadi. But Saul said to (CQ)the Kenites, “Go, get away, go down from among the Amalekites, so that I do not destroy you along with them; for (CR)you showed kindness to all the sons of Israel when they went up from Egypt.” So the Kenites got away from among the Amalekites. Then (CS)Saul [ay]defeated the Amalekites, from (CT)Havilah [az]going toward (CU)Shur, which is [ba]east of Egypt. He captured (CV)Agag the king of the Amalekites alive, and (CW)completely destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword. But Saul and the people (CX)spared Agag and the best of the sheep, the oxen, the more valuable animals, the lambs, and everything that was good, and were unwilling to destroy them completely; but everything despicable and weak, that they completely destroyed.

Samuel Rebukes Saul

10 Then the word of the Lord came to Samuel, saying, 11 (CY)I regret that I have made Saul king, because (CZ)he has turned back from [bb]following Me and has not carried out My commands.” And Samuel was furious and (DA)cried out to the Lord all night. 12 Samuel got up early in the morning to meet Saul; and it was reported to Samuel, saying, “Saul came to (DB)Carmel, and behold, he set up a monument for himself, then turned and proceeded on [bc]down to (DC)Gilgal.” 13 So Samuel came to Saul, and Saul said to him, “(DD)Blessed are you of the Lord! I have carried out the command of the Lord.” 14 But Samuel said, “(DE)What then is this [bd]bleating of the sheep in my ears, and the [be]bellowing of the oxen which I hear?” 15 Saul said, “They have brought them from the Amalekites, for (DF)the people spared the best of the sheep and oxen to sacrifice to the Lord your God; but the rest we have completely destroyed.” 16 Then Samuel said to Saul, “Stop, and let me inform you of what the Lord said to me last night.” And he said to him, “Speak!”

17 So Samuel said, “[bf]Is it not true, (DG)though you were [bg]insignificant in your own eyes, that you became the head of the tribes of Israel? For the Lord anointed you as king over Israel. 18 And the Lord sent you on a [bh]mission, and said, ‘(DH)Go and completely destroy the sinners, the Amalekites, and fight against them until they are eliminated.’ 19 Why then did you not obey the voice of the Lord? (DI)Instead, you loudly rushed upon the spoils and did what was evil in the sight of the Lord!”

20 Then Saul said to Samuel, “(DJ)I did obey the voice of the Lord, for I went on the [bi]mission on which the Lord sent me; and I have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and have completely destroyed the Amalekites. 21 But (DK)the people took some of the spoils, sheep and oxen, the choicest of the things designated for destruction, to sacrifice to the Lord your God at Gilgal.” 22 Samuel said,

(DL)Does the Lord have as much delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices
As in obeying the voice of the Lord?
Behold, (DM)to obey is better than a sacrifice,
And to pay attention is better than the fat of rams.
23 For rebellion is as reprehensible as the sin of (DN)divination,
And insubordination is as reprehensible as (DO)false religion and idolatry.
Since you have rejected the word of the Lord,
(DP)He has also rejected you from being king.”

24 Then Saul said to Samuel, “(DQ)I have sinned, for (DR)I have violated the [bj]command of the Lord and your words, because I feared the people and listened to their voice. 25 Now then, (DS)please pardon my sin and return with me, so that I may worship the Lord.” 26 But Samuel said to Saul, “I will not return with you; for (DT)you have rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord has rejected you from being king over Israel.” 27 Then Samuel turned to go, but (DU)Saul grasped the edge of his robe, and it tore off. 28 So Samuel said to him, “(DV)The Lord has torn the kingdom of Israel from you today and has given it to your neighbor, who is better than you. 29 Also the [bk](DW)Glory of Israel (DX)will not lie nor change His mind; for He is not a man, that He would change His mind.” 30 Then Saul said, “I have sinned; (DY)but please honor me now before the elders of my people and before all Israel, and go back with me, (DZ)so that I may worship the Lord your God.” 31 So Samuel went back following Saul, and Saul worshiped the Lord.

32 Then Samuel said, “Bring me Agag, the king of the Amalekites.” And Agag came to him [bl]cheerfully. And Agag said, “Surely the bitterness of death is gone!” 33 But Samuel said, “(EA)As your sword has made women childless, so shall your mother be childless among women.” And Samuel cut Agag to pieces before the Lord at Gilgal.

34 Then Samuel went to (EB)Ramah, but Saul went up to his house at (EC)Gibeah of Saul. 35 And (ED)Samuel did not see Saul again until the day of his death, though Samuel (EE)mourned for [bm]Saul. And the Lord regretted that He had made Saul king over Israel.

Samuel Goes to Bethlehem

16 Now the Lord said to Samuel, “(EF)How long are you going to mourn for [bn]Saul, since (EG)I have rejected him from being king over Israel? (EH)Fill your horn with oil and go; I will send you to (EI)Jesse the Bethlehemite, because I have (EJ)chosen a king for Myself among his sons.” But Samuel said, “How can I go? When Saul hears about it, he will kill me.” But the Lord said, “(EK)Take a heifer [bo]with you and say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.’ And you shall invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and (EL)I will let you know what you shall do; and (EM)you shall anoint for Me the one whom I [bp]designate to you.” So Samuel did what the Lord told him, and he came to (EN)Bethlehem. Then the elders of the city came trembling to meet him and said, “(EO)Do you come in peace?” And he said, “In peace; I have come to sacrifice to the Lord. (EP)Consecrate yourselves and come with me to the sacrifice.” He also consecrated Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice.

When they entered, he looked at (EQ)Eliab and thought, “Surely the Lords anointed is standing before Him.” But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look at his appearance or at the height of his stature, because I have rejected him; for [bq]God does not see as man sees, since man looks at [br]the outward appearance, (ER)but the Lord looks at the heart.” Then Jesse called (ES)Abinadab and had him pass before Samuel. But he said, “The Lord has not chosen this one, either.” Next Jesse had [bs](ET)Shammah pass by. And he said, “The Lord has not chosen this one, either.” 10 So Jesse had seven of his sons pass before Samuel. But Samuel said to Jesse, “The Lord has not chosen these.” 11 Then Samuel said to Jesse, “Are these all the boys?” And he said, “(EU)The youngest is still left, but behold, he is tending the sheep.” So Samuel said to Jesse, “Send word and bring him; for we will not take our places at the table until he comes here.”

David Anointed

12 So he sent word and brought him in. Now he was [bt]reddish, with (EV)beautiful eyes and a handsome appearance. And the Lord said, “(EW)Arise, anoint him; for this is he.” 13 So Samuel took the horn of oil and (EX)anointed him in the midst of his brothers; and (EY)the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon David from that day forward. And Samuel set out and went to Ramah.

14 (EZ)Now the Spirit of the Lord left Saul, and (FA)an evil spirit from the Lord terrified him. 15 Saul’s servants then said to him, “Behold now, an evil spirit from God is terrifying you. 16 May our lord now command your servants who are before you. Have them search for a man who is a skillful musician on the harp; and it shall come about whenever the evil spirit from God is upon you, that (FB)he shall play the harp with his hand, and you will become well.” 17 So Saul said to his servants, “Now select for me a man who can play well, and bring him to me.” 18 Then one of the young men responded and said, “Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite who is a skillful musician, (FC)a valiant mighty man, a warrior, skillful in speech, and a handsome man; and (FD)the Lord is with him.” 19 So Saul sent messengers to Jesse [bu]to say, “Send me your son David, who is with the flock.” 20 And Jesse (FE)took a donkey loaded with bread and a jug of wine, and he took a young goat, and sent them to Saul by his son David. 21 Then David came to Saul and [bv](FF)attended him; and Saul greatly loved him, and he became his armor bearer. 22 So Saul sent word to Jesse, saying, “Let David now [bw]be my attendant for he has found favor in my sight.” 23 So it came about whenever (FG)the evil spirit from God came to Saul, David would take the harp and play it with his hand; and Saul would feel relieved and become well, and the evil spirit would leave him.

Goliath’s Challenge

17 Now (FH)the Philistines gathered their armies for battle; and they were gathered at Socoh which belongs to Judah, and they camped between (FI)Socoh and (FJ)Azekah, in (FK)Ephes-dammim. Saul and the men of Israel were assembled and camped in (FL)the Valley of Elah, and they drew up in battle formation to confront the Philistines. The Philistines were standing on the mountain on one side, while Israel was standing on the mountain on the other side, with the valley between them. Then a champion came forward from the army encampment of the Philistines, named (FM)Goliath, from (FN)Gath. His height was [bx]six cubits and a [by]span. And he had a bronze helmet on his head, and he wore scale-armor [bz]which weighed [ca]five thousand shekels of bronze. He also had bronze [cb]greaves on his legs and a (FO)bronze [cc]saber slung between his shoulders. (FP)The shaft of his spear was like a weaver’s beam, and the head of his spear weighed [cd]six hundred shekels of iron; and (FQ)his shield-carrier walked in front of him. He stood and shouted to the ranks of Israel and said to them, “Why do you come out to draw up in battle formation? Am I not the Philistine, and you the (FR)servants of Saul? Choose a man as your representative and have him come down to me. (FS)If he is able to fight me and [ce]kill me, then we will become your servants; but if I prevail against him and [cf]kill him, then you shall become our servants and serve us.” 10 Then the Philistine said, “(FT)I have defied the ranks of Israel this day! Give me a man, so that we may fight together.” 11 When Saul and all Israel heard these words of the Philistine, they were dismayed and very fearful.

12 Now David was (FU)the son of [cg]the (FV)Ephrathite of Bethlehem in Judah, the man whose name was Jesse, and (FW)he had eight sons. And [ch]Jesse was old in the days of Saul, advanced in years among men. 13 The three older sons of Jesse had [ci]followed Saul to the battle. And (FX)the names of his three sons who had gone into the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and second to him, Abinadab, and the third, Shammah. 14 So (FY)David was the youngest. Now the three oldest followed Saul, 15 (FZ)but David went back and forth from Saul (GA)to tend his father’s flock at Bethlehem. 16 And the Philistine came forward morning and evening, and took his stand for forty days.

17 Then Jesse said to his son David, “(GB)Take now for your brothers an ephah of this roasted grain and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to your brothers. 18 (GC)Bring also these ten slices of cheese to the commander of their thousand, (GD)and look into the well-being of your brothers and bring back [cj]confirmation from them. 19 For Saul and they and all the men of Israel are in the Valley of Elah, fighting the Philistines.”

David Accepts the Challenge

20 So David got up early in the morning and left the flock with a keeper, and took the supplies and went as Jesse had commanded him. And he came to the (GE)entrenchment encircling the camp while the army was going out in battle formation, shouting the war cry. 21 Israel and the Philistines drew up in battle formation, army against army. 22 Then David left the (GF)baggage in the [ck]care of the baggage keeper and ran to the battle line. And he entered and [cl]greeted his brothers. 23 As he was speaking with them, behold, the champion, the Philistine from Gath named Goliath, was coming up from the army of the Philistines, and he spoke (GG)these same words; and David heard him.

24 When all the men of Israel saw the man, they fled from him and were very fearful. 25 And the men of Israel said, “Have you seen this man who is coming up? Surely he is coming up to defy Israel. And it will be that the king will make the man who kills him wealthy with great riches, and (GH)will give him his daughter and make his father’s house [cm]free in Israel.”

26 Then David said to the men who were standing by him, “What will be done for the man who kills this Philistine and rids Israel of (GI)the disgrace? For who is this (GJ)uncircumcised Philistine, that he has dared to (GK)defy the armies of (GL)the living God?” 27 The people [cn]answered him in agreement with this statement, saying, “(GM)This is what will be done for the man who kills him.”

28 Now Eliab his oldest brother heard him when he spoke to the men; and (GN)Eliab’s anger burned against David and he said, “Why is it that you have come down? And with whom have you left those few sheep in the wilderness? I myself know your insolence and the wickedness of your heart; for you have come down in order to see the battle.” 29 But David said, “What have I done now? Was it not just a [co]question?” 30 Then he turned [cp]away from him to another and (GO)said the same thing; and the people replied with the same words as [cq]before.

David Kills Goliath

31 When the words that David spoke were heard, they informed [cr]Saul, and he [cs]sent for him. 32 And David said to Saul, “(GP)May no one’s heart fail on account of him; (GQ)your servant will go and fight this Philistine!” 33 But Saul said to David, “(GR)You are not able to go against this Philistine to fight him; for you are only a youth, while he has been a warrior since his youth.” 34 But David said to Saul, “Your servant was tending his father’s sheep. When a lion or a bear came and took a sheep from the flock, 35 I went out after it and [ct]attacked it, and (GS)rescued the sheep from its mouth; and when it rose up against me, I grabbed it by its mane and struck it and killed it. 36 Your servant has [cu]killed both the lion and the bear; and this uncircumcised Philistine will be like one of them, since he has defied the armies of the living God.” 37 And David said, “(GT)The Lord who saved me from the paw of the lion and the paw of the bear, He will save me from the hand of this Philistine.” So Saul said to David, “(GU)Go, and may the Lord be with you.” 38 Then Saul clothed David with his military attire and put a bronze helmet on his head, and outfitted him with armor. 39 And David strapped on his sword over his military attire and struggled at walking, for he had not trained with the armor. So David said to Saul, “I cannot go with these, because I have not trained with them.” And David took them [cv]off. 40 Then he took his staff in his hand and chose for himself five smooth stones from the brook, and put them in the shepherd’s bag which he had, that is, in his shepherd’s pouch, and (GV)his sling was in his hand; and he approached the Philistine.

41 Then the Philistine came and approached David, with the shield-bearer in front of him. 42 When the Philistine looked and saw David, (GW)he was contemptuous of him; for he was only a youth, and [cw](GX)reddish, with a handsome appearance. 43 So the Philistine said to David, “(GY)Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?” And (GZ)the Philistine cursed David by his gods. 44 The Philistine also said to David, “Come to me, and I will give your flesh (HA)to the birds of the sky and the [cx]wild animals.” 45 But David said to the Philistine, “You come to me with a sword, a spear, and a [cy]saber, (HB)but I come to you in the name of the Lord of armies, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied. 46 This day the Lord will hand you over to me, and I will strike you and remove your head from you. Then I will give the (HC)dead bodies of the army of the Philistines this day to the birds of the sky and the wild animals of the earth, (HD)so that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel, 47 and that this entire assembly may know that (HE)the Lord does not save by sword or by spear; (HF)for the battle is the Lords, and He will hand you over to us!”

48 Then it happened, when the Philistine [cz]came closer to meet David, that (HG)David ran quickly toward the battle line to meet the Philistine. 49 And David put his hand into his bag and took from it a stone and slung it, and struck the Philistine on his forehead. And the stone penetrated his forehead, and he fell on his face to the ground.

50 So David prevailed over the Philistine with the sling and the stone: he struck the Philistine and killed him, and there was no sword in David’s hand. 51 Then David ran and stood over the Philistine, and (HH)took his sword and drew it out of its sheath and finished him, and cut off his head with it. (HI)When the Philistines saw that their champion was dead, they fled. 52 Then the men of Israel and Judah rose up and shouted, and they pursued the Philistines [da]as far as the valley, and to the gates of (HJ)Ekron. And the Philistine dead [db]lay along the way to (HK)Shaaraim, even to Gath and Ekron. 53 Then the sons of Israel returned from their close pursuit of the Philistines, and plundered their camps. 54 And David took the Philistine’s head and brought it to Jerusalem, but he put his weapons in his tent.

55 Now when Saul had seen David going out against the Philistine, he said to Abner the commander of the army, “Abner, whose son is (HL)this young man?” And Abner said, “By your life, O king, I do not know.” 56 And the king said, “You then, ask whose son the youth is.” 57 So when David returned from killing the Philistine, Abner took him and (HM)brought him before Saul with the Philistine’s head in his hand. 58 Then Saul said to him, “Whose son are you, young man?” And David answered, “(HN)I am the son of your servant Jesse the Bethlehemite.”

Jonathan and David

18 Now it came about, when he had finished speaking to Saul, that [dc](HO)Jonathan committed himself to David, and (HP)Jonathan loved him as himself. And Saul took him that day and (HQ)did not let him return to his father’s house. Then (HR)Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as himself. (HS)Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was on him and gave it to David, with his military gear, including his sword, his bow, and his belt. And David went into battle wherever Saul sent him, and always [dd]achieved success; so Saul put him in charge of the men of war. And it was pleasing in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul’s servants.

Now it happened as they were coming, when David returned from killing the Philistine, that (HT)the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet King Saul, with tambourines, with joy and with other [de]musical instruments. The women (HU)sang as they [df]played, and said,

(HV)Saul has slain his thousands,
(HW)And David his ten thousands.”

Then Saul became very angry, for this lyric [dg]displeased him; and he said, “They have given David credit for ten thousands, but to me they have given credit for only thousands! Now what more can he have but the (HX)kingdom?” And Saul eyed David with suspicion from that day on.

Saul Turns against David

10 Now it came about on the next day that (HY)an evil spirit from God rushed upon Saul, and (HZ)he raved in the midst of the house while David was playing the harp with his hand, [dh](IA)as usual; and [di](IB)a spear was in Saul’s hand. 11 Then (IC)Saul hurled the spear, for he thought, “I will [dj]pin David to the wall.” But David [dk]escaped from his presence, twice.

12 Now (ID)Saul was afraid of David, (IE)because the Lord was with him but (IF)had left Saul. 13 So Saul removed him from [dl]his presence and appointed him as his commander of a thousand; and (IG)he went out and came in before the people. 14 David was [dm]successful in all his ways, for (IH)the Lord was with him. 15 When Saul saw that he was [dn]very successful, he was afraid of him. 16 But (II)all Israel and Judah loved David, for he would go out to battle and [do]return [dp]before them.

17 Then Saul said to David, “(IJ)Here is my older daughter Merab; I will give her to you as a wife, only be a valiant man for me and fight (IK)the Lords battles.” For Saul thought, “My hand shall not be against him, but (IL)let the hand of the Philistines be against him.” 18 But David said to Saul, “(IM)Who am I, and who is my family, or my father’s family in Israel, that I should be the king’s son-in-law?” 19 So it came about at the time that Merab, Saul’s daughter, was to be given to David, that she was given instead to (IN)Adriel (IO)the Meholathite as a wife.

David Marries Saul’s Daughter

20 Now (IP)Michal, Saul’s daughter, loved David. When they informed Saul, the thing was pleasing [dq]to him. 21 For Saul thought, “I will give her to him so that she may become a trap for him, and (IQ)that the hand of the Philistines may be against him.” Therefore Saul said to David, “(IR)For a second time you may become my son-in-law, today.” 22 Then Saul commanded his servants, “Speak to David in secret, saying, ‘Behold, the king delights in you, and all his servants love you; now then, become the king’s son-in-law.’” 23 So Saul’s servants spoke these words [dr]to David. But David said, “Is it trivial in your sight to become the king’s son-in-law, (IS)since I am only a poor man and insignificant?” 24 Then Saul’s servants reported to him, saying, “[ds]These are the words David spoke.” 25 Saul then said, “This is what you shall say to David: ‘The king does not desire any (IT)dowry except a hundred foreskins of the Philistines, (IU)to take vengeance on the king’s enemies.’” But (IV)Saul plotted to have David fall by the hand of the Philistines. 26 When his servants told David these words, [dt]it pleased David to become the king’s son-in-law. So [du](IW)before the time had expired, 27 David set out and went, (IX)he and his men, and fatally struck two hundred men among the Philistines. Then (IY)David brought their foreskins, and they presented all two hundred of them to the king, so that he might become the king’s son-in-law. And Saul gave him his daughter Michal as a wife. 28 When Saul saw and realized that the Lord was with David, and that Michal, Saul’s daughter, loved him, 29 then Saul was even more afraid of David. So Saul was David’s enemy continually.

30 Then the commanders of the Philistines (IZ)went to battle, and it happened as often as they went out, that David (JA)was more [dv]successful than all the servants of Saul. So his name was held in high esteem.

David Protected from Saul

19 Now Saul told his son Jonathan and all his servants (JB)to put David to death. But (JC)Jonathan, Saul’s son, greatly delighted in David. So Jonathan informed David, saying, “My father Saul is seeking to put you to death. Now then, please be on your guard in the morning, and stay in a hiding place and conceal yourself. And as for me, I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where you are hiding, and I will speak with my father about you; and (JD)whatever I [dw]find out, I will tell you.” Then Jonathan (JE)spoke well of David to his father Saul and said to him, “(JF)May the king not sin against his servant David, since he has not sinned against you, and since his deeds have been very [dx]beneficial to you. For (JG)he took his life in his hand and struck the Philistine, and (JH)the Lord brought about a great [dy]victory for all Israel; you saw it and rejoiced. (JI)Why then would you sin against innocent blood by putting David to death [dz]for no reason?” Saul listened to the voice of Jonathan, and Saul vowed, “As the Lord lives, David shall not be put to death.” Then Jonathan called David, and Jonathan told him all these words. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence as (JJ)before.

When there was war again, David went out and fought the Philistines and [ea]defeated them with great slaughter, so that they fled from him. Now there was (JK)an evil spirit from the Lord on Saul as he was sitting in his house (JL)with his spear in his hand, (JM)and David was playing the harp with his hand. 10 (JN)And Saul tried to [eb]pin David to the wall with the spear, but he escaped from Saul’s presence, so that he stuck the spear into the wall. And David fled and escaped that night.

11 Then (JO)Saul sent messengers to David’s house to watch him, in order to put him to death in the morning. But Michal, David’s wife, informed him, saying, “If you do not save your life tonight, tomorrow you will be put to death!” 12 (JP)So Michal let David down through a window, and he went and fled, and escaped. 13 And Michal took (JQ)the [ec]household idol and laid it on the bed, and put a quilt of goats’ hair at its head, and covered it with clothing. 14 When Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, “(JR)He is sick.” 15 Then Saul sent messengers to see David, saying, “Bring him up to me on [ed]his bed, so that I may put him to death.” 16 When the messengers entered, behold, the [ee]household idol was on the bed with the quilt of goats’ hair at its head. 17 So Saul said to Michal, “Why have you betrayed me like this and let my enemy go, so that he has escaped?” And Michal said to Saul, “He said to me, ‘Let me go! (JS)Why should I put you to death?’”

18 So David fled and escaped, and came (JT)to Samuel at Ramah; and he informed him of everything that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and stayed in (JU)Naioth. 19 But it was reported to Saul, saying, “Behold, David is at Naioth in Ramah.” 20 Then (JV)Saul sent messengers to take David, but when they saw (JW)the company of prophets prophesying, with Samuel standing and presiding over them, the Spirit of God came upon the messengers of Saul; and (JX)they also prophesied. 21 When Saul was informed of this, he sent other messengers, but they also prophesied. So Saul sent messengers again the third time, yet they prophesied. 22 Then he went to Ramah himself and came as far as the large well that is in Secu; and he [ef]asked, “Where are Samuel and David?” And someone said, “Behold, they are at Naioth in Ramah.” 23 So he [eg]proceeded there to Naioth in Ramah; but (JY)the Spirit of God came upon him also, so that he went along prophesying continually until he came to Naioth in Ramah. 24 He also stripped off his clothes, and he too prophesied before Samuel and [eh]lay down [ei](JZ)naked all that day and all night. Therefore they say, “(KA)Is Saul also among the prophets?”


  1. 1 Samuel 13:1 As in some LXX mss, but very uncertain; MT one year old
  2. 1 Samuel 13:1 See Acts 13:21; Heb two years
  3. 1 Samuel 13:4 Lit saying
  4. 1 Samuel 13:4 Lit after
  5. 1 Samuel 13:10 Lit bless
  6. 1 Samuel 13:11 Lit time of days
  7. 1 Samuel 13:12 Lit said
  8. 1 Samuel 13:12 Or appeased
  9. 1 Samuel 13:13 Lit to
  10. 1 Samuel 13:14 Lit like His
  11. 1 Samuel 13:15 Lit mustered
  12. 1 Samuel 13:15 Lit found
  13. 1 Samuel 13:16 Lit found
  14. 1 Samuel 13:17 Lit destroyers
  15. 1 Samuel 13:17 Lit heads
  16. 1 Samuel 13:17 Lit head
  17. 1 Samuel 13:17 Lit to the way of
  18. 1 Samuel 13:18 Lit head
  19. 1 Samuel 13:18 Lit the way of
  20. 1 Samuel 13:18 Lit head
  21. 1 Samuel 13:18 Lit the way of
  22. 1 Samuel 13:19 Lit sword or spear
  23. 1 Samuel 13:21 Heb pim
  24. 1 Samuel 13:21 I.e., spiked sticks for driving cattle
  25. 1 Samuel 14:3 Lit carrying
  26. 1 Samuel 14:9 Lit say thus
  27. 1 Samuel 14:10 Lit say thus
  28. 1 Samuel 14:15 Lit trembling of God
  29. 1 Samuel 14:23 Lit passed over
  30. 1 Samuel 14:24 Lit until
  31. 1 Samuel 14:27 As in some mss and ancient versions; MT saw
  32. 1 Samuel 14:34 Lit with his hand
  33. 1 Samuel 14:36 Lit in your eyes
  34. 1 Samuel 14:38 Lit Approach here
  35. 1 Samuel 14:38 Lit cornerstones
  36. 1 Samuel 14:40 Lit in your eyes
  37. 1 Samuel 14:41 I.e., a clear answer
  38. 1 Samuel 14:41 Lit got out
  39. 1 Samuel 14:45 Lit worked
  40. 1 Samuel 14:45 Lit deliverance
  41. 1 Samuel 14:45 Lit ransomed
  42. 1 Samuel 14:46 Lit after
  43. 1 Samuel 14:47 Or condemned
  44. 1 Samuel 14:48 Lit struck
  45. 1 Samuel 14:48 Lit its plunderer
  46. 1 Samuel 14:52 Lit brought him in to himself
  47. 1 Samuel 15:1 Lit sound of the words
  48. 1 Samuel 15:2 Or visit
  49. 1 Samuel 15:4 Lit mustered
  50. 1 Samuel 15:5 Or valley
  51. 1 Samuel 15:7 Lit struck
  52. 1 Samuel 15:7 Lit as you go
  53. 1 Samuel 15:7 Lit before
  54. 1 Samuel 15:11 Lit after
  55. 1 Samuel 15:12 Lit and went down
  56. 1 Samuel 15:14 Lit sound
  57. 1 Samuel 15:14 Lit sound
  58. 1 Samuel 15:17 Or Though you were..., did you not become
  59. 1 Samuel 15:17 Lit small
  60. 1 Samuel 15:18 Lit way
  61. 1 Samuel 15:20 Lit way
  62. 1 Samuel 15:24 Lit mouth
  63. 1 Samuel 15:29 Or Splendor
  64. 1 Samuel 15:32 Or in chains
  65. 1 Samuel 15:35 I.e., God’s rejection of Saul
  66. 1 Samuel 16:1 I.e., God’s rejection of Saul
  67. 1 Samuel 16:2 Lit by your hand
  68. 1 Samuel 16:3 Lit say to you
  69. 1 Samuel 16:7 As in LXX; MT, He does not see what man sees
  70. 1 Samuel 16:7 Lit the eyes; or what is before the eyes
  71. 1 Samuel 16:9 In 2 Sam 13:3, Shimeah; in 1 Chr 2:13, Shimea
  72. 1 Samuel 16:12 I.e., of reddish hair or skin
  73. 1 Samuel 16:19 Lit and said
  74. 1 Samuel 16:21 Lit stood before him
  75. 1 Samuel 16:22 Lit stand before me
  76. 1 Samuel 17:4 About 9 ft. or 2.7 m
  77. 1 Samuel 17:4 About 9 in. or 23 cm
  78. 1 Samuel 17:5 Lit and the weight of the armor was
  79. 1 Samuel 17:5 Possibly 75-125 lb. (shekel weight varied)
  80. 1 Samuel 17:6 I.e., shin guards
  81. 1 Samuel 17:6 Lit scimitar was
  82. 1 Samuel 17:7 Possibly 8-14 lb.
  83. 1 Samuel 17:9 Lit strike
  84. 1 Samuel 17:9 Lit strike
  85. 1 Samuel 17:12 Lit this
  86. 1 Samuel 17:12 Lit the man
  87. 1 Samuel 17:13 Lit gone; they went after
  88. 1 Samuel 17:18 Lit their pledge
  89. 1 Samuel 17:22 Lit hand
  90. 1 Samuel 17:22 Lit inquired about his brothers’ well-being
  91. 1 Samuel 17:25 I.e., exempt from taxes and public service
  92. 1 Samuel 17:27 Lit said to
  93. 1 Samuel 17:29 Lit word
  94. 1 Samuel 17:30 Lit from beside him
  95. 1 Samuel 17:30 Lit the former word
  96. 1 Samuel 17:31 Lit before Saul
  97. 1 Samuel 17:31 Lit took him
  98. 1 Samuel 17:35 Lit struck
  99. 1 Samuel 17:36 Lit struck
  100. 1 Samuel 17:39 Lit off from himself
  101. 1 Samuel 17:42 I.e., of reddish hair or complexion
  102. 1 Samuel 17:44 Lit beast of the field
  103. 1 Samuel 17:45 Lit scimitar
  104. 1 Samuel 17:48 Lit arose and came
  105. 1 Samuel 17:52 Lit until your coming to
  106. 1 Samuel 17:52 Lit fell
  107. 1 Samuel 18:1 Lit the soul of Jonathan was joined to the soul of
  108. 1 Samuel 18:5 Or acted wisely
  109. 1 Samuel 18:6 Possibly three-stringed lutes
  110. 1 Samuel 18:7 Or danced
  111. 1 Samuel 18:8 Lit was evil in his eyes
  112. 1 Samuel 18:10 Lit day by day
  113. 1 Samuel 18:10 Lit the
  114. 1 Samuel 18:11 Lit strike David and the wall
  115. 1 Samuel 18:11 Lit turned about
  116. 1 Samuel 18:13 Lit with him
  117. 1 Samuel 18:14 Or acting wisely
  118. 1 Samuel 18:15 Or acting very wisely
  119. 1 Samuel 18:16 Lit come in
  120. 1 Samuel 18:16 Or leading them
  121. 1 Samuel 18:20 Lit in his sight
  122. 1 Samuel 18:23 Lit in the ears of
  123. 1 Samuel 18:24 Lit According to these words David
  124. 1 Samuel 18:26 Lit the thing was pleasing in the sight of
  125. 1 Samuel 18:26 Lit the days were not fulfilled, and
  126. 1 Samuel 18:30 Or wise
  127. 1 Samuel 19:3 Lit see
  128. 1 Samuel 19:4 Lit good
  129. 1 Samuel 19:5 Lit deliverance
  130. 1 Samuel 19:5 Or undeservedly
  131. 1 Samuel 19:8 Lit struck
  132. 1 Samuel 19:10 Lit strike David and the wall
  133. 1 Samuel 19:13 Heb teraphim
  134. 1 Samuel 19:15 Lit the
  135. 1 Samuel 19:16 Heb teraphim
  136. 1 Samuel 19:22 Lit asked and said
  137. 1 Samuel 19:23 Lit went
  138. 1 Samuel 19:24 Lit fell
  139. 1 Samuel 19:24 I.e., without outward garments

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