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1 Chronicles 7 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Issachar’s Descendants

The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron—four in all.

The sons of Tola: Uzzi, Rephaiah, Jeriel, Jahmai, Jibsam,[a] and Samuel.[b] They were leaders of their families.[c] In the time of David there were 22,600 warriors listed in Tola’s genealogical records.[d]

The son[e] of Uzzi: Izrahiah.

The sons of Izrahiah: Michael, Obadiah, Joel, and Isshiah. All five were leaders.

According to the genealogical records of their families, they had 36,000 warriors available for battle, for they had numerous wives and sons.[f] Altogether the genealogical records of the clans of Issachar listed 87,000 warriors.[g]

Benjamin’s Descendants

The sons of Benjamin:[h] Bela, Beker, and Jediael—three in all.

The sons of Bela: Ezbon, Uzzi, Uzziel, Jerimoth, and Iri. The five of them were leaders of their families. There were 22,034 warriors listed in their genealogical records.

The sons of Beker: Zemirah, Joash, Eliezer, Elioenai, Omri, Jeremoth, Abijah, Anathoth, and Alemeth. All these were the sons of Beker. There were 20,200 family leaders and warriors listed in their genealogical records.

10 The son[i] of Jediael: Bilhan.

The sons of Bilhan: Jeush, Benjamin, Ehud, Kenaanah, Zethan, Tarshish, and Ahishahar. 11 All these were the sons of Jediael. There were 17,200 family leaders and warriors who were capable of marching out to battle.

12 The Shuppites and Huppites were descendants of Ir; the Hushites were descendants of Aher.[j]

Naphtali’s Descendants

13 The sons of Naphtali: Jahziel,[k] Guni, Jezer, and Shallum[l]—sons of Bilhah.

Manasseh’s Descendants

14 The sons of Manasseh: Asriel, who was born to Manasseh’s Aramean concubine.[m] She also gave birth to Makir the father of Gilead. 15 Now Makir married a wife from the Huppites and Shuppites.[n] (His sister’s name was Maacah.)

Zelophehad was Manasseh’s second son;[o] he had only daughters.

16 Maacah, Makir’s wife, gave birth to a son, whom she named Peresh. His brother was Sheresh, and his sons were Ulam and Rekem.

17 The son[p] of Ulam: Bedan.

These were the sons of Gilead, son of Makir, son of Manasseh. 18 His sister Hammoleketh gave birth to Ishhod, Abiezer, and Mahlah.

19 The sons of Shemida were Ahian, Shechem, Likhi, and Aniam.

Ephraim’s Descendants

20 The descendants of Ephraim: Shuthelah, his son Bered, his son Tahath, his son Eleadah, his son Tahath, 21 his son Zabad, his son Shuthelah (Ezer and Elead were killed by the men of Gath, who were natives of the land, when they went down to steal their cattle. 22 Their father Ephraim mourned for them many days and his brothers came to console him. 23 He slept with[q] his wife; she became pregnant and gave birth to a son. Ephraim[r] named him Beriah because tragedy had come to his family.[s] 24 His daughter was Sheerah, who built Lower and Upper Beth Horon, as well as Uzzen Sheerah),

25 his[t] son Rephah, his son Resheph,[u] his son Telah, his son Tahan, 26 his son Ladan, his son Ammihud, his son Elishama, 27 his son Nun,[v] and his son Joshua.

28 Their property and settlements included Bethel and its surrounding towns, Naaran to the east, Gezer and its surrounding towns to the west, and Shechem and its surrounding towns as far as Ayyah and its surrounding towns. 29 On the border of Manasseh’s territory were Beth Shean[w] and its surrounding towns, Taanach and its surrounding towns, Megiddo and its surrounding towns, and Dor and its surrounding towns. The descendants of Joseph, Israel’s son, lived here.

Asher’s Descendants

30 The sons of Asher: Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, and Beriah. Serah was their sister.

31 The sons of Beriah: Heber and Malkiel, who was the father of Birzaith.

32 Heber was the father of Japhlet, Shomer, Hotham, and Shua their sister.

33 The sons of Japhlet: Pasach, Bimhal, and Ashvath. These were Japhlet’s sons.

34 The sons of his brother[x] Shemer:[y] Rohgah, Hubbah,[z] and Aram.

35 The sons of his brother Helem:[aa] Zophah, Imna, Shelesh, and Amal.

36 The sons of Zophah: Suah, Harnepher, Shual, Beri, Imrah, 37 Bezer, Hod, Shamma, Shilshah, Ithran,[ab] and Beera.

38 The sons of Jether: Jephunneh, Pispah, and Ara.

39 The sons of Ulla: Arah, Hanniel, and Rizia.

40 All these were the descendants of Asher. They were the leaders of their families, the most capable men, who were warriors and served as head chiefs. There were 26,000 warriors listed in their genealogical records as capable of doing battle.[ac]

Footnotes:

  1. 1 Chronicles 7:2 tn Many English versions spell this name “Ibsam.”
  2. 1 Chronicles 7:2 tn Many English versions retain a form of this name closer to the Hebrew, i.e., “Shemuel.”
  3. 1 Chronicles 7:2 tn Heb “heads of the house of their fathers.”
  4. 1 Chronicles 7:2 tn Heb “to Tola [there were] warriors by their generations, their number in the days of David [was] 22,600.”
  5. 1 Chronicles 7:3 tn The Hebrew text has the plural “sons,” but only one son is listed.
  6. 1 Chronicles 7:4 tn Heb “and unto them by their generations to the house of their fathers [were] troops of war of battle, 36,000, for they had many wives and sons.”
  7. 1 Chronicles 7:5 tn Heb “and their brothers, according to all the clans of Issachar, the warriors [were] 87,000 listed in the genealogical records for all.”
  8. 1 Chronicles 7:6 tc The Hebrew text has simply “Benjamin,” but בְּנֵי (bene, “sons of”) has dropped out by haplography (בְּנֵי בִּנְיָמִן, bene binyamin).
  9. 1 Chronicles 7:10 tn The Hebrew text has the plural “sons,” but only one son is listed.
  10. 1 Chronicles 7:12 tn The name “Aher” appears as “Ahiram” in Num 26:38.
  11. 1 Chronicles 7:13 tn The name “Jahziel” appears as “Jahzeel” in Gen 46:24.
  12. 1 Chronicles 7:13 tc Most Hebrew mss read “Shallum”; some Hebrew mss and some LXX mss read “Shillem,” the form of the name that appears in Gen 46:24 and Num 26:49.
  13. 1 Chronicles 7:14 sn See the note on the word “concubine” in 1:32.
  14. 1 Chronicles 7:15 tn Some translations treat the terms שֻׁפִּים (shuppim) and חֻפִּים (khuppim) as proper names of individuals (“Huppim” and “Shuppim”), but others consider these forms to be plurals and refer to tribal or clan names.
  15. 1 Chronicles 7:15 tn Heb “and the name of the second was Zelophehad.”
  16. 1 Chronicles 7:17 tn The Hebrew text has the plural “sons,” but only one son is listed.
  17. 1 Chronicles 7:23 tn The expression בּוֹא אֶל (boʾ ʾel) means “come to” or “approach,” but is also used as a euphemism for sexual relations.
  18. 1 Chronicles 7:23 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Ephraim) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  19. 1 Chronicles 7:23 tn Heb “because in tragedy there had come to his house.” The preposition prefixed to רָעָה (raʿah) should probably be omitted. The Hebrew noun רָעָה (“tragedy”) should be understood as the subject of the feminine verb form that follows.
  20. 1 Chronicles 7:25 tn The antecedent of the pronoun “his” is not clear. The translation assumes that v. 25 resumes the list of Ephraim’s descendants (see vv. 20-21a) after a lengthy parenthesis (vv. 21b-24).
  21. 1 Chronicles 7:25 tc The Hebrew text has simply “Resheph,” but the phrase “his son” has probably been accidentally omitted, since the names before and after this one include the phrase.
  22. 1 Chronicles 7:27 tn Heb “Non” (so KJV, NASB; cf. Exod 33:11, where the more familiar spelling “Nun” occurs).
  23. 1 Chronicles 7:29 tn “Beth Shean” is a variant spelling of “Beth Shan.”
  24. 1 Chronicles 7:34 tc The Hebrew text has אֲחִי (ʾakhi, “the brother of”), but this should probably be emended to אֲחִיו (ʾakhiv, “his brother”). Cf. v. 35. Most English versions treat this Hebrew word as a proper name (“Ahi”) and list it before “Rohgah.”
  25. 1 Chronicles 7:34 tn Or “Shomer,” cf. v. 32.
  26. 1 Chronicles 7:34 tc “Hubbah” is the marginal reading (Qere); the consonantal text (Kethib) has “Jachbah.”
  27. 1 Chronicles 7:35 tn Or “Hotham,” cf. v. 32.
  28. 1 Chronicles 7:37 tn The name “Ithran” is sometimes understood to be another name for “Jether” (v. 38).
  29. 1 Chronicles 7:40 tn Heb “all these were the sons of Asher, heads of the house of the fathers, selected, warriors, heads of the leaders, and there was listed in the genealogical records in war, in battle, their number, men, 26,000.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 36 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 36[a]

For the music director, an oracle, written by the Lord’s servant David.[b]

36 An evil man is rebellious to the core.[c]
He does not fear God,[d]
for he is too proud
to recognize and give up his sin.[e]
The words he speaks are sinful and deceitful;
he does not care about doing what is wise and right.[f]
While he lies in bed he plans ways to sin.
He is committed to a sinful lifestyle;[g]
he does not reject what is evil.[h]
O Lord, your loyal love reaches to the sky,[i]
your faithfulness to the clouds.[j]
Your justice is like the highest mountains,[k]
your fairness like the deepest sea;
you, Lord, preserve[l] mankind and the animal kingdom.[m]
How precious[n] is your loyal love, O God!
The human race finds shelter under your wings.[o]
They are filled with food from your house,
and you allow them to drink from the river of your delicacies.
For with you is the fountain of life;
in your light we see light.[p]
10 Extend[q] your loyal love to your faithful followers,[r]
and vindicate[s] the morally upright.[t]
11 Do not let arrogant men overtake me,
or let evil men make me homeless.[u]
12 I can see the evildoers! They have fallen.[v]
They have been knocked down and are unable to get up.[w]

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 36:1 sn Psalm 36. Though evil men plan to harm others, the psalmist is confident that the Lord is the just ruler of the earth who gives and sustains all life. He prays for divine blessing and protection and anticipates God’s judgment of the wicked.
  2. Psalm 36:1 tn In the Hebrew text the word נאם (“oracle”) appears at the beginning of the next verse (v. 2 in the Hebrew text because the superscription is considered v. 1). The resulting reading, “an oracle of rebellion for the wicked [is] in the midst of my heart” (cf. NIV) apparently means that the psalm, which foresees the downfall of the wicked, is a prophetic oracle about the rebellion of the wicked which emerges from the soul of the psalmist. One could translate, “Here is a poem written as I reflected on the rebellious character of evil men.” Another option, followed in the translation above, is to attach נאם (ne’um, “oracle”) with the superscription. For another example of a Davidic poem being labeled an “oracle,” see 2 Sam 23:1.
  3. Psalm 36:1 tn Heb “[the] rebellion of an evil man [is] in the midst of my heart.” The translation assumes a reading “in the midst of his heart” (i.e., “to the core”) instead of “in the midst of my heart,” a change which finds support in a few medieval Hebrew mss, the Hebrew text of Origen’s Hexapla, and the Syriac.
  4. Psalm 36:1 tn Heb “there is no dread of God before his eyes.” The phrase “dread of God” refers here to a healthy respect for God which recognizes that he will punish evil behavior.
  5. Psalm 36:2 tn Heb “for it causes to be smooth to him in his eyes to find his sin to hate.” The meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. Perhaps the point is this: His rebellious attitude makes him reject any notion that God will hold him accountable. His attitude also prevents him from recognizing and repudiating his sinful ways.
  6. Psalm 36:3 tn Heb “he ceases to exhibit wisdom to do good.” The Hiphil forms are exhibitive, indicating the outward expression of an inner attitude.
  7. Psalm 36:4 tn Heb “he takes a stand in a way [that is] not good.” The word “way” here refers metaphorically to behavior or life style.
  8. Psalm 36:4 tn The three imperfect verbal forms in v. 4 highlight the characteristic behavior of the typical evildoer.
  9. Psalm 36:5 tn Heb “[is] in the heavens.”
  10. Psalm 36:5 sn The Lord’s loyal love/faithfulness is almost limitless. He is loyal and faithful to his creation and blesses mankind and the animal kingdom with physical life and sustenance (vv. 6-9).
  11. Psalm 36:6 tn Heb “mountains of God.” The divine name אֵל (ʾel, “God”) is here used in an idiomatic manner to indicate the superlative.
  12. Psalm 36:6 tn Or “deliver.”
  13. Psalm 36:6 sn God’s justice/fairness is firm and reliable like the highest mountains and as abundant as the water in the deepest sea. The psalmist uses a legal metaphor to describe God’s preservation of his creation. Like a just judge who vindicates the innocent, God protects his creation from destructive forces.
  14. Psalm 36:7 tn Or “valuable.”
  15. Psalm 36:7 tn Heb “and the sons of man in the shadow of your wings find shelter.” The preservation of physical life is in view, as the next verse makes clear.
  16. Psalm 36:9 sn Water (note “fountain”) and light are here metaphors for life.
  17. Psalm 36:10 tn Heb “draw out to full length.”
  18. Psalm 36:10 tn Heb “to those who know you.” The Hebrew verb יָדַע (yadaʿ, “know”) is used here of those who “know” the Lord in the sense that they recognize his royal authority and obey his will (see Jer 22:16).
  19. Psalm 36:10 tn Heb “and your justice to.” The verb “extend” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the previous line).
  20. Psalm 36:10 tn Heb “the pure of heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of one’s moral character and motives. The “pure of heart” are God’s faithful followers who trust in and love the Lord and, as a result, experience his deliverance (see Pss 7:10; 11:2; 32:11; 64:10; 94:15; 97:11).
  21. Psalm 36:11 tn Heb “let not a foot of pride come to me, and let not the hand of the evil ones cause me to wander as a fugitive.”
  22. Psalm 36:12 tn Heb “there the workers of wickedness have fallen.” The adverb שָׁם (sham, “there”) is used here for dramatic effect, as the psalmist envisions the evildoers lying fallen at a spot that is vivid in his imagination (BDB 1027 s.v.).
  23. Psalm 36:12 tn The psalmist uses perfect verbal forms in v. 12 to describe the demise of the wicked as if it has already taken place.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Mark 4 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Parable of the Sower

Again he began to teach by the lake. Such a large crowd gathered around him that he got into a boat[a] on the lake and sat there while[b] the whole crowd was on the shore by the lake. He taught them many things in parables,[c] and in his teaching said to them: “Listen! A sower went out to sow.[d] And as he sowed, some seed[e] fell along the path, and the birds came and devoured it. Other seed fell on rocky ground[f] where it did not have much soil. It sprang up at once because the soil was not deep.[g] When the sun came up it was scorched, and because it did not have sufficient root,[h] it withered. Other seed fell among the thorns,[i] and they grew up and choked it,[j] and it did not produce grain. But[k] other seed fell on good soil and produced grain, sprouting and growing; some yielded thirty times as much, some sixty, and some a hundred times.” And he said, “Whoever has ears to hear had better listen!”[l]

The Purpose of Parables

10 When he was alone, those around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 11 He said to them, “The secret[m] of the kingdom of God[n] has been given[o] to you. But to those outside, everything is in parables,

12 so that although they look they may look but not see,
and although they hear they may hear but not understand,
so they may not repent and be forgiven.”[p]

13 He said to them, “Don’t you understand this parable? Then[q] how will you understand any parable? 14 The sower sows the word. 15 These are the ones on the path where the word is sown: Whenever they hear, immediately Satan[r] comes and snatches the word[s] that was sown in them. 16 These are the ones sown on rocky ground: As soon as they hear the word, they receive it with joy. 17 But[t] they have no root in themselves and do not endure.[u] Then, when trouble or persecution comes because of the word, immediately they fall away. 18 Others are the ones sown among thorns: They are those who hear the word, 19 but[v] worldly cares, the seductiveness of wealth,[w] and the desire for other things come in and choke the word,[x] and it produces nothing. 20 But[y] these are the ones sown on good soil: They hear the word and receive it and bear fruit, one thirty times as much, one sixty, and one a hundred.”

The Parable of the Lamp

21 He also said to them, “A lamp[z] isn’t brought to be put under a basket[aa] or under a bed, is it? Isn’t it to be placed on a lampstand? 22 For nothing is hidden except to be revealed,[ab] and nothing concealed except to be brought to light. 23 If anyone has ears to hear, he had better listen!”[ac] 24 And he said to them, “Take care about what you hear. The measure you use will be the measure you receive,[ad] and more will be added to you. 25 For whoever has will be given more, but[ae] whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken from him.”[af]

The Parable of the Growing Seed

26 He also said, “The kingdom of God[ag] is like someone who spreads seed on the ground. 27 He goes to sleep and gets up, night and day, and the seed sprouts and grows, though he does not know how. 28 By itself the soil produces a crop, first the stalk, then the head, then the full grain[ah] in the head. 29 And when the grain is ripe, he sends in the sickle[ai] because the harvest has come.”[aj]

The Parable of the Mustard Seed

30 He also asked, “To what can we compare the kingdom of God,[ak] or what parable can we use to present it? 31 It is like a mustard seed[al] that when sown in the ground, even though it is the smallest of all the seeds in the ground— 32 when it is sown, it grows up,[am] becomes the greatest of all garden plants, and grows large branches so that the wild birds[an] can nest in its shade.”[ao]

The Use of Parables

33 So[ap] with many parables like these, he spoke the word to them, as they were able to hear. 34 He did not speak to them without a parable. But privately he explained everything to his own disciples.

Stilling of a Storm

35 On that day, when evening came, Jesus[aq] said to his disciples, “Let’s go across to the other side of the lake.”[ar] 36 So[as] after leaving the crowd, they took him along, just as he was, in the boat,[at] and other boats were with him. 37 Now[au] a great windstorm[av] developed and the waves were breaking into the boat, so that the boat was nearly swamped. 38 But[aw] he was in the stern, sleeping on a cushion. They woke him up and said to him, “Teacher, don’t you care that we are about to die?” 39 So[ax] he got up and rebuked[ay] the wind, and said to the sea,[az] “Be quiet! Calm down!” Then[ba] the wind stopped, and it was dead calm. 40 And he said to them, “Why are you cowardly? Do you still not have faith?” 41 They were overwhelmed by fear and said to one another, “Who then is this?[bb] Even the wind and sea obey him!”[bc]

Footnotes:

  1. Mark 4:1 sn See the note at Mark 1:19 for a description of the first-century fishing boat discovered in 1986 near Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
  2. Mark 4:1 tn Grk “and all the crowd.” The clause in this phrase, although coordinate in terms of grammar, is logically subordinate to the previous clause.
  3. Mark 4:2 sn Though parables can contain a variety of figures of speech (cf. 2:19-22; 3:23-25; 4:3-9, 26-32; 7:15-17; 13:28), many times they are simply stories that attempt to teach spiritual truth (which is unknown to the hearers) by using a comparison with something known to the hearers. In general, parables usually advance a single idea, though there may be many parts and characters in a single parable and subordinate ideas may expand the main idea further. The beauty of using the parable as a teaching device is that it draws the listener into the story, elicits an evaluation, and demands a response.
  4. Mark 4:3 sn A sower went out to sow. The background for this well-known parable, drawn from a typical scene in the Palestinian countryside, is a field through which a well worn path runs. Sowing would occur in late fall or early winter (October to December) in the rainy season, looking for sprouting in April or May and a June harvest. The use of seed as a figure for God’s giving life has OT roots (Isa 55:10-11). The point of the parable of the sower is to illustrate the various responses to the message of the kingdom of God (cf. 4:11).
  5. Mark 4:4 tn Mark’s version of the parable, like Luke’s (cf. Luke 8:4-8), uses the collective singular to refer to the seed throughout, so singular pronouns have been used consistently throughout this parable in the English translation. However, the parallel account in Matt 13:1-9 begins with plural pronouns in v. 4 but then switches to the collective singular in v. 5 ff.
  6. Mark 4:5 sn The rocky ground in Palestine would be a limestone base lying right under the soil.
  7. Mark 4:5 tn Grk “it had no depth of earth.”
  8. Mark 4:6 tn Grk “it did not have root.”
  9. Mark 4:7 sn Palestinian weeds like these thorns could grow up to 6 feet in height and have a major root system.
  10. Mark 4:7 sn That is, crowded out the good plants.
  11. Mark 4:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in the final stage of the parable.
  12. Mark 4:9 tn The translation “had better listen!” captures the force of the third person imperative more effectively than the traditional “let him hear,” which sounds more like a permissive than an imperative to the modern English reader. This was Jesus’ common expression to listen and heed carefully (cf. Matt 11:15; 13:9, 43; Mark 4:23; Luke 8:8; 14:35).
  13. Mark 4:11 tn Grk “the mystery.”sn The key term secret (μυστήριον, mustērion) can mean either (1) a new revelation or (2) a revealing interpretation of existing revelation as in Dan 2:17-23, 27-30. Jesus seems to be explaining how current events develop old promises, since the NT consistently links the events of Jesus’ ministry and message with old promises (Rom 1:1-4; Heb 1:1-2). The traditional translation of this word, “mystery,” is misleading to the modern English reader because it suggests a secret which people have tried to uncover but which they have failed to understand (L&N 28.77).
  14. Mark 4:11 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself.
  15. Mark 4:11 tn This is an example of a “divine passive,” with God understood to be the source of the revelation (see ExSyn 437-38).
  16. Mark 4:12 sn A quotation from Isa 6:9-10. Thus parables both conceal or reveal depending on whether one is open to hearing what they teach.
  17. Mark 4:13 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  18. Mark 4:15 sn Interestingly, the synoptic parallels each use a different word for Satan here: Matt 13:19 has “the evil one,” while Luke 8:12 has “the devil.” This illustrates the fluidity of the gospel tradition in often using synonyms at the same point of the parallel tradition.
  19. Mark 4:15 sn The word of Jesus has the potential to save if it germinates in a person’s heart, something the devil is very much against.
  20. Mark 4:17 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  21. Mark 4:17 tn Grk “are temporary.”
  22. Mark 4:19 tn Grk “and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  23. Mark 4:19 tn Grk “the deceitfulness of riches.” Cf. BDAG 99 s.v. ἀπάτη 1, “the seduction which comes from wealth.”
  24. Mark 4:19 sn That is, their concern for spiritual things is crowded out by material things.
  25. Mark 4:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  26. Mark 4:21 sn The lamp is probably an ancient oil burning lamp or perhaps a candlestick. Jesus is comparing revelation to light, particularly the revelation of his ministry.
  27. Mark 4:21 tn Or “a bowl”; this refers to any container for dry material of about eight liters (two gallons) capacity. It could be translated “basket, box, bowl” (L&N 6.151).
  28. Mark 4:22 tn Or “disclosed.”
  29. Mark 4:23 tn The translation “had better listen!” captures the force of the third person imperative more effectively than the traditional “let him hear,” which sounds more like a permissive than an imperative to the modern English reader. This was Jesus’ common expression to listen and heed carefully (cf. Matt 11:15; 13:9, 43; Mark 4:9; Luke 8:8; 14:35).
  30. Mark 4:24 tn Grk “by the measure with which you measure it will be measured to you.”
  31. Mark 4:25 tn Grk “and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  32. Mark 4:25 sn What he has will be taken from him. The meaning is that the one who accepts Jesus’ teaching concerning his person and the kingdom will receive a share in the kingdom now and even more in the future, but for the one who rejects Jesus’ words, the opportunity that that person presently possesses with respect to the kingdom will someday be taken away forever.
  33. Mark 4:26 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself.
  34. Mark 4:28 tn KJV “corn” is the result of British English, in which “corn” refers to the main cereal crop of a district, wheat in England and oats in Scotland (British English uses “maize” to refer to American corn).
  35. Mark 4:29 tn The Greek word εὐθύς (euthus, often translated “immediately” or “right away”) has not been translated here. It sometimes occurs with a weakened, inferential use (BDAG 406 s.v. 2), not contributing significantly to the flow of the narrative. For further discussion, see R. J. Decker, Temporal Deixis of the Greek Verb in the Gospel of Mark with Reference to Verbal Aspect (SBG 10), 73-77.
  36. Mark 4:29 sn Because the harvest has come. This parable is found only in Mark (cf. Matt 13:24-30) and presents a complete picture of the coming of God’s kingdom: (1) sowing; (2) growth; (3) harvest. Some understand the parable as a reference to evangelism. While this is certainly involved, it does not seem to be the central idea. In contrast to the parable of the sower which emphasizes the quality of the different soils, this parable emphasizes the power of the seed to cause growth (with the clear implication that the mysterious growth of the kingdom is accomplished by God), apart from human understanding and observation.
  37. Mark 4:30 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. See the note on this phrase in v. 26.
  38. Mark 4:31 sn Mustard seeds are known for their tiny size.
  39. Mark 4:32 tn Mark 4:31-32 is fairly awkward in Greek. Literally the sentence reads as follows: “As a mustard seed, which when sown in the earth, being the smallest of all the seeds in the earth, and when it is sown, it grows up…” The structure has been rendered in more idiomatic English, although some of the awkward structure has been retained for rhetorical effect.
  40. Mark 4:32 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).
  41. Mark 4:32 sn The point of the parable seems to be that while the kingdom of God may appear to have insignificant and unnoticeable beginnings (i.e., in the ministry of Jesus), it will someday (i.e., at the second advent) be great and quite expansive. The kingdom, however, is not to be equated with the church, but rather the church is an expression of the kingdom. Also, there is important OT background in the image of a small plant that grew and became a tree: Ezek 17:22-24 pictures the reemergence of the Davidic house where people can find calm and shelter. Like the mustard seed, it would start out small but grow to significant size.
  42. Mark 4:33 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  43. Mark 4:35 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  44. Mark 4:35 tn The phrase “of the lake” is not in the Greek text but is clearly implied; it has been supplied here for clarity.
  45. Mark 4:36 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the response to Jesus’ request.
  46. Mark 4:36 tn It is possible that this prepositional phrase modifies “as he was,” not “they took him along.” The meaning would then be “they took him along in the boat in which he was already sitting” (see 4:1).sn A boat that held all the disciples would be of significant size. See the note at Mark 1:19 for a description of the first-century fishing boat discovered in 1986 near Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
  47. Mark 4:37 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  48. Mark 4:37 tn Or “a squall.”sn The Sea of Galilee is located in a depression some 700 ft (200 m) below sea level and is surrounded by hills. Frequently a rush of wind and the right mix of temperatures can cause a storm to come suddenly on the lake. Storms on the Sea of Galilee were known for their suddenness and violence.
  49. Mark 4:38 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  50. Mark 4:39 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  51. Mark 4:39 tn Or “commanded” (often with the implication of a threat, L&N 33.331).
  52. Mark 4:39 sn Who has authority over the seas and winds is discussed in the OT: Pss 104:3; 135:7; 107:23-30. When Jesus rebuked the wind and the sea he was making a statement about who he was.
  53. Mark 4:39 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  54. Mark 4:41 sn Jesus’ authority over creation raised a question for the disciples about who he was exactly (Who then is this?). This verse shows that the disciples followed Jesus even though they did not know all about him yet.
  55. Mark 4:41 sn This section in Mark (4:35-5:43) contains four miracles: (1) the calming of the storm; (2) the exorcism of the demon-possessed man; (3) the giving of life to Jairus’ daughter; (4) the healing of the woman hemorrhaging for twelve years. All these miracles demonstrate Jesus’ right to proclaim the kingdom message and his sovereign authority over forces, directly or indirectly, hostile to the kingdom. The last three may have been brought together to show that Jesus had power over all defilement, since contact with graves, blood, or a corpse was regarded under Jewish law as causing a state of ritual uncleanness.
New English Translation (NET)

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