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1 Chronicles 2 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Israel’s Descendants

These were the sons of Israel:[a] Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; Issachar and Zebulun;

Dan, Joseph, and Benjamin;

Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.

Judah’s Descendants

The sons of Judah: Er, Onan, and Shelah. These three were born to him by Bathshua,[b] a Canaanite woman. Er, Judah’s firstborn, displeased the Lord, so the Lord killed him.[c]

Tamar, Judah’s[d] daughter-in-law, bore to him Perez and Zerah. Judah had five sons in all.

The sons of Perez: Hezron and Hamul.

The sons of Zerah: Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Kalkol, Dara[e]—five in all.

The son[f] of Carmi: Achan,[g] who brought the disaster on Israel when he stole what was devoted to God.[h]

The son[i] of Ethan: Azariah.

The sons born to Hezron: Jerahmeel, Ram, and Caleb.[j]

Ram’s Descendants

10 Ram was the father of Amminadab, and Amminadab was the father of Nahshon, the tribal chief of Judah. 11 Nahshon was the father of Salma,[k] and Salma was the father of Boaz. 12 Boaz was the father of Obed, and Obed was the father of Jesse.

13 Jesse was the father of Eliab, his firstborn; Abinadab was born second, Shimea third, 14 Nethanel fourth, Raddai fifth, 15 Ozem sixth, and David seventh. 16 Their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigail. Zeruiah’s three sons were Abshai,[l] Joab, and Asahel. 17 Abigail bore Amasa, whose father was Jether the Ishmaelite.

Caleb’s Descendants

18 Caleb son of Hezron fathered sons by his wife Azubah (also known as Jerioth).[m] Her sons were Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon. 19 When Azubah died, Caleb married[n] Ephrath, who bore him Hur. 20 Hur was the father of Uri, and Uri was the father of Bezalel.

21 Later[o] Hezron slept with[p] the daughter of Makir, the father of Gilead. (He had married[q] her when he was sixty years old.) She bore him Segub. 22 Segub was the father of Jair, who owned twenty-three cities in the land of Gilead. 23 (Geshur and Aram captured the towns of Jair,[r] along with Kenath and its sixty surrounding towns.) All these were descendants of Makir, the father of Gilead.

24 After Hezron’s death, Caleb slept with Ephrath, his father Hezron’s widow, and she bore to him Ashhur the father of Tekoa.[s]

Jerahmeel’s Descendants

25 The sons of Jerahmeel, Hezron’s firstborn, were Ram, the firstborn, Bunah, Oren, Ozem, and Ahijah. 26 Jerahmeel had another wife named Atarah; she was Onam’s mother.

27 The sons of Ram, Jerahmeel’s firstborn, were Maaz, Jamin, and Eker.

28 The sons of Onam were Shammai and Jada.

The sons of Shammai: Nadab and Abishur.

29 Abishur’s wife was Abihail, who bore him Ahban and Molid. 30 The sons of Nadab: Seled and Appaim. (Seled died without having sons.)

31 The son[t] of Appaim: Ishi.

The son of Ishi: Sheshan.

The son of Sheshan: Ahlai.

32 The sons of Jada, Shammai’s brother: Jether and Jonathan. (Jether died without having sons.)

33 The sons of Jonathan: Peleth and Zaza.

These were the descendants of Jerahmeel.

34 Sheshan had no sons, only daughters. Sheshan had an Egyptian servant named Jarha. 35 Sheshan gave his daughter to his servant Jarha as a wife; she bore him Attai.

36 Attai was the father of Nathan, and Nathan was the father of Zabad. 37 Zabad was the father of Ephlal, and Ephlal was the father of Obed. 38 Obed was the father of Jehu, and Jehu was the father of Azariah. 39 Azariah was the father of Helez, and Helez was the father of Eleasah. 40 Eleasah was the father of Sismai, and Sismai was the father of Shallum. 41 Shallum was the father of Jekamiah, and Jekamiah was the father of Elishama.

More of Caleb’s Descendants

42 The sons of Caleb, Jerahmeel’s brother: His firstborn Mesha, the father of Ziph, and his second son Mareshah,[u] the father of Hebron.

43 The sons of Hebron: Korah, Tappuah, Rekem, and Shema.

44 Shema was the father of Raham, the father of Jorkeam. Rekem was the father of Shammai. 45 Shammai’s son was Maon, who was the father of Beth Zur.

46 Caleb’s concubine[v] Ephah bore Haran, Moza, and Gazez. Haran was the father of Gazez.

47 The sons of Jahdai: Regem, Jotham, Geshan, Pelet, Ephah, and Shaaph.

48 Caleb’s concubine Maacah bore Sheber and Tirhanah. 49 She also bore Shaaph the father of Madmannah and Sheva the father of Machbenah and Gibea. Caleb’s daughter was Achsah.

50 These were the descendants of Caleb.

The sons[w] of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrath:[x] Shobal, the father of Kiriath Jearim, 51 Salma, the father of Bethlehem, and Hareph, the father of Beth Gader.

52 The sons of Shobal, the father of Kiriath Jearim, were Haroeh, half the Manahathites,[y] 53 the clans of Kiriath Jearim—the Ithrites, Puthites, Shumathites, and Mishraites. (The Zorathites and Eshtaolites descended from these groups.)[z]

54 The sons of Salma: Bethlehem, the Netophathites, Atroth Beth Joab, half the Manahathites, the Zorites, 55 and the clans of the scribes[aa] who lived in Jabez: the Tirathites, Shimeathites, and Sucathites. These are the Kenites who descended[ab] from Hammath, the father of Beth Rechab.[ac]


  1. 1 Chronicles 2:1 tn The groupings in the list that follows, as well as the conjunctions (vav-consecutives in Hebrew), reflect those of the Hebrew text.
  2. 1 Chronicles 2:3 tn The name means “daughter of Shua.” Shua is identified in Gen 38:2 as a “Canaanite man.”
  3. 1 Chronicles 2:3 tn Heb “was evil in the eyes of the Lord, so he [i.e., the Lord] killed him [i.e., Er].”
  4. 1 Chronicles 2:4 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Judah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  5. 1 Chronicles 2:6 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss, some LXX mss, and Syriac read “Darda” (see 1 Kgs 4:31 ET = 1 Kgs 5:11 HT).
  6. 1 Chronicles 2:7 tn Heb “sons.” The Hebrew text has the plural, but only one son is listed.
  7. 1 Chronicles 2:7 tc The Hebrew text has “Achar,” which means “disaster,” but a few medieval Hebrew mss read “Achan.” See Josh 7:1.
  8. 1 Chronicles 2:7 tn Heb “the troubler of Israel who was unfaithful with respect to the devoted [things].”
  9. 1 Chronicles 2:8 tn Heb “sons.” The Hebrew text has the plural, but only one son is listed.
  10. 1 Chronicles 2:9 tn The Hebrew text has “Celubai,” but see v. 18, where Caleb is described as the son of Hezron.
  11. 1 Chronicles 2:11 tc The LXX reads “Salmon” (cf. Ruth 4:21) and is followed by some English versions (e.g., NIV, NCV, TEV, NLT).
  12. 1 Chronicles 2:16 tn In 2 Sam 2:18 this name appears as “Abishai,” a spelling followed by many English versions here.
  13. 1 Chronicles 2:18 tn Heb “and Caleb son of Hezron fathered [children] with Azubah, a wife, and with Jerioth.” Jerioth could be viewed as a second wife (so NLT; cf. also NASB, NIV, NRSV), but the following context mentions only “her [presumably Azubah’s] sons.” Another option, the one chosen in the translation, is that Jerioth is another name for Azubah.
  14. 1 Chronicles 2:19 tn Heb “took for himself.”
  15. 1 Chronicles 2:21 sn This means “later” in relation to the births of the three sons (Jerahmeel, Ram and Caleb) mentioned in v. 9.
  16. 1 Chronicles 2:21 tn The expression בּוֹא אֶל (boʾ ʾel) means “come to” or “approach,” but is also used as a euphemism for sexual relations.
  17. 1 Chronicles 2:21 tn Heb “he took,” referring to taking in marriage.
  18. 1 Chronicles 2:23 tn Or “Havvoth Jair” (NIV, NRSV). Some translations do not translate the phrase (“havvoth” = “the towns of”), but treat it as part of the place name.
  19. 1 Chronicles 2:24 tc Heb “And after the death of Hezron in Caleb Ephrathah, and the wife of Hezron, Abijah, and she bore to him Ashhur the father of Tekoa.” The translations assumes three diferences from the MT. 1) Where the MT preserves only the preposition ב (bet, “in”), the NET agrees with the text behind the LXX and Vulgate in reading בָּא ב (baʾ b-, “went to”). Caleb is thus the subject of the verb rather than an otherwise unattested place name, and Ephrath(a) is a reference to his wife (see vv. 19 and 50). A directional he on the end of Ephratha would be unusual on a personal name but the he also appears in v. 50 where it cannot be a directional he. Also the phrase בָּא ב is viewed as a euphemism for sexual relations, rather than a description of entering the town of Ephrath (or Bethlehem). 2) The ו (vav, “and”) is not read before “wife of Hezron.” 3) A ו (vav) is restored after אֲבִיָּה (ʾaviyyah, “Abijah”) to make אָבִיהוּ (ʾavihu, “his father”). This less common form of the noun with the suffix also occurs in 1 Chron 26:10 and 2 Chron 3:1. Thus “the wife of Hezron his father” is a descriptor of Caleb’s second wife, Ephrath. Some translations follow the MT on the first point to make Abijah the subject of the following verb as in “after Hezron died in Caleb Ephrathah, Abijah, Hezron’s wife, bore to him Ashhur, the father of Tekoa” (cf. NASB, NIV, NRSV). However, the preterite verb form cannot properly be preceded by its subject in this fashion. One would need to suppose that the phrase “and the wife of Hezron, Abijah” is not appositional but rather a parenthetic clause “and the wife of Hezron was Abijah.” R. Braun (1 Samuel [WBC], 40) is favorable to the idea that “the name of Hezron’s wife represents a misplaced gloss on v 21” (citing Williamson, JBL 98, 355). In the reading adopted here, this would mean that Caleb’s second wife, Ephrath, had actually been his late father’s wife (probably Caleb’s stepmother). Perhaps the text was subsequently altered because Caleb’s actions appeared improper in light of the injunctions in Lev 18:8; 20:11; Deut 22:30; 27:20 (which probably refer, however, to a son having sexual relations with his stepmother while his father is still alive).
  20. 1 Chronicles 2:31 tn Heb “sons.” The Hebrew text has the plural “sons” in all three instances in this verse, even though the following lists have only one name each.
  21. 1 Chronicles 2:42 tc Heb “and the sons of Mareshah,” but this does not fit contextually. Perhaps the text originally had וּבְנוֹ מִשְׁנֶה מָרֵשָׁה (uveno mishneh mareshah, “and his second son, Mareshah”), with מִשְׁנֶה (“second”) later accidentally falling out by homoioteleuton (cf. the note in BHS here).
  22. 1 Chronicles 2:46 sn See the note on the word “concubine” in 1:32.
  23. 1 Chronicles 2:50 tn Heb “son.” The Hebrew text has the singular, but the following list contains more than one name.
  24. 1 Chronicles 2:50 tn The Hebrew text reads “Ephrathah” here, but see v. 19, which mentions “Ephrath” as the wife of Caleb and mother of Hur.
  25. 1 Chronicles 2:52 tn The Hebrew text has “Menuchites” here, but v. 54 has “Manachathites.”
  26. 1 Chronicles 2:53 tn Heb “from these went forth the Zorathites and Eshtaolites.”
  27. 1 Chronicles 2:55 tn Or perhaps “the Sopherim.” The NAB transliterates this term and treats it as a proper name.
  28. 1 Chronicles 2:55 tn Heb “came.”
  29. 1 Chronicles 2:55 tn Or (if בֵּית [beth] is translated as “house” rather than considered to be part of the name) “the father of the house [i.e., family] of Rechab.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 31 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 31[a]

For the music director, a psalm of David.

31 In you, O Lord, I have taken shelter.
Never let me be humiliated.
Vindicate me by rescuing me.[b]
Listen to me.[c]
Quickly deliver me.
Be my protector and refuge,[d]
a stronghold where I can be safe.[e]
For you are my high ridge[f] and my stronghold;
for the sake of your own reputation[g] you lead me and guide me.[h]
You will free me[i] from the net they hid for me,
for you are my place of refuge.
Into your hand I entrust my life;[j]
you will rescue[k] me, O Lord, the faithful God.
I hate those who serve worthless idols,[l]
but I trust in the Lord.
I will be happy and rejoice in your faithfulness,
because you notice my pain
and you are aware of how distressed I am.[m]
You do not deliver me over to the power of the enemy;
you enable me to stand[n] in a wide open place.
Have mercy on me, Lord, for I am in distress!
My eyes grow dim[o] from suffering.[p]
I have lost my strength.[q]
10 For my life nears its end in pain;
my years draw to a close as I groan.[r]
My strength fails me because of[s] my sin,
and my bones become brittle.[t]
11 Because of all my enemies, people disdain me;[u]
my neighbors are appalled by my suffering[v]
those who know me are horrified by my condition;[w]
those who see me in the street run away from me.
12 I am forgotten, like a dead man no one thinks about;[x]
I am regarded as worthless, like a broken jar.[y]
13 For I hear what so many are saying,[z]
the terrifying news that comes from every direction.[aa]
When they plot together against me,
they figure out how they can take my life.
14 But I trust in you, O Lord!
I declare, “You are my God!”
15 You determine my destiny.[ab]
Rescue me from the power of my enemies and those who chase me.
16 Smile[ac] on your servant.
Deliver me because of your faithfulness.
17 O Lord, do not let me be humiliated,
for I call out to you.
May evil men be humiliated.
May they go wailing to the grave.[ad]
18 May lying lips be silenced—
lips[ae] that speak defiantly against the innocent[af]
with arrogance and contempt.
19 How great is your favor,[ag]
which you store up for your loyal followers.[ah]
In plain sight of everyone you bestow it on those who take shelter[ai] in you.[aj]
20 You hide them with you, where they are safe from the attacks[ak] of men;[al]
you conceal them in a shelter, where they are safe from slanderous attacks.[am]
21 The Lord deserves praise[an]
for he demonstrated his amazing faithfulness to me when I was besieged by enemies.[ao]
22 I jumped to conclusions and said,[ap]
“I am cut off from your presence!”[aq]
But you heard my plea for mercy when I cried out to you for help.
23 Love the Lord, all you faithful followers[ar] of his!
The Lord protects those who have integrity,
but he pays back in full the one who acts arrogantly.[as]
24 Be strong and confident,[at]
all you who wait on the Lord.


  1. Psalm 31:1 sn Psalm 31. The psalmist confidently asks the Lord to protect him. Enemies threaten him and even his friends have abandoned him, but he looks to the Lord for vindication. In vv. 19-24, which were apparently written after the Lord answered the prayer of vv. 1-18, the psalmist thanks the Lord for delivering him.
  2. Psalm 31:1 tn Heb “in your vindication rescue me.”
  3. Psalm 31:2 tn Heb “turn toward me your ear.”
  4. Psalm 31:2 tn Heb “become for me a rocky summit of refuge.”
  5. Psalm 31:2 tn Heb “a house of strongholds to deliver me.”
  6. Psalm 31:3 sn The metaphor of the high ridge pictures God as a rocky, relatively inaccessible summit, where one would be able to find protection from enemies. See 1 Sam 23:25, 28.
  7. Psalm 31:3 tn Heb “name.” The Hebrew term שֵׁם (shem, “name”) refers here to the Lord’s reputation. (The English term “name” is often used the same way.)
  8. Psalm 31:3 tn The present translation assumes that the imperfect verbal forms are generalizing, “you lead me and guide me.” Other options are to take them as an expression of confidence about the future, “you will lead me and guide me” (cf. NASB), or as expressing a prayer, “lead me and guide me” (cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV).
  9. Psalm 31:4 tn Heb “bring me out.” The translation assumes that the imperfect verbal form expresses the psalmist’s confidence about the future. Another option is to take the form as expressing a prayer, “free me.”
  10. Psalm 31:5 tn Heb “my spirit.” The noun רוּחַ (ruakh, “spirit”) here refers to the animating spirit that gives the psalmist life.
  11. Psalm 31:5 tn Or “redeem.” The perfect verbal form is understood here as anticipatory, indicating rhetorically the psalmist’s certitude and confidence that God will intervene. The psalmist is so confident of God’s positive response to his prayer that he can describe his deliverance as if it had already happened. Another option is to take the perfect as precative, expressing a wish or request (“rescue me”; cf. NIV). See IBHS 494-95 §30.5.4c, d. However, not all grammarians are convinced that the perfect is used as a precative in biblical Hebrew.
  12. Psalm 31:6 tn Heb “the ones who observe vain things of falsehood.” See Jonah 2:9.
  13. Psalm 31:7 tn Heb “you know the distresses of my life.”
  14. Psalm 31:8 tn Heb “you cause my feet to stand.”
  15. Psalm 31:9 tn Or perhaps, “are swollen.”
  16. Psalm 31:9 tn Cf. Ps 6:7, which has a similar line.
  17. Psalm 31:9 tn Heb “my breath and my stomach [grow weak].” Apparently the verb in the previous line (“grow dim, be weakened”) is to be understood here. The Hebrew term נפשׁ can mean “life,” or, more specifically, “throat, breath.” The psalmist seems to be lamenting that his breathing is impaired because of the physical and emotional suffering he is forced to endure.
  18. Psalm 31:10 tn Heb “and my years in groaning.”
  19. Psalm 31:10 tn Heb “stumbles in.”
  20. Psalm 31:10 tn Heb “grow weak.”
  21. Psalm 31:11 tn Heb “because of all my enemies I am a reproach.”
  22. Psalm 31:11 tc Heb “and to my neighbors, exceedingly.” If the MT is retained, then these words probably go with what precedes. However the syntactical awkwardness of the text suggests a revision may be needed. P. C. Craigie (Psalms 1-50 [WBC], 258) suggests that the initial mem (מ) on מְאֹד (meʾod, “exceedingly”) be understood as an enclitic mem (ם) which was originally suffixed to the preceding form and then later misinterpreted. The resulting form אֵד (ʾed) can then be taken as a defectively written form of אֵיד (ʾed, “calamity”). If one follows this emendation, then the text reads literally, “and to my neighbors [I am one who experiences] calamity.” The noun פַחַד (fakhad, “[object of] horror”) occurs in the next line; אֵיד and פַחַד appear in parallelism elsewhere (see Prov 1:26-27).
  23. Psalm 31:11 tn Heb “and [an object of ] horror to those known by me.”
  24. Psalm 31:12 tn Heb “I am forgotten, like a dead man, from [the] heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the center of one’s thoughts.
  25. Psalm 31:12 tn Heb “I am like a broken jar.” One throws away a broken jar without a second thought because it is considered worthless and useless.
  26. Psalm 31:13 tn Heb “the report of many.”
  27. Psalm 31:13 tn Heb “the terror from all around.”
  28. Psalm 31:15 tn Heb “in your hand [are] my times.”
  29. Psalm 31:16 tn Heb “cause your face to shine.”
  30. Psalm 31:17 tn The verb יִדְּמוּ (yiddemu) is understood as a form of דָּמַם (damam, “wail, lament”). Another option is to take the verb from דָּמַם (“be quiet”; see BDB 198-99 s.v. I דָּמַם), in which case one might translate, “May they lie silent in the grave.”
  31. Psalm 31:18 tn Heb “the [ones which].”
  32. Psalm 31:18 tn Or “godly.”
  33. Psalm 31:19 tn Or “How abundant are your blessings!”
  34. Psalm 31:19 tn Heb “for those who fear you.”
  35. Psalm 31:19 tn “Taking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear, and serve the Lord (Pss 2:12; 5:11-12; 34:21-22).
  36. Psalm 31:19 tn Heb “you work [your favor] for the ones seeking shelter in you before the sons of men.”
  37. Psalm 31:20 tn The noun רֹכֶס (rokhes) occurs only here. Its meaning is debated; some suggest “snare,” while others propose “slander” or “conspiracy.”
  38. Psalm 31:20 tn Heb “you hide them in the hiding place of your face from the attacks of man.” The imperfect verbal forms in this verse draw attention to God’s typical treatment of the faithful.
  39. Psalm 31:20 tn Heb “you conceal them in a shelter from the strife of tongues.”
  40. Psalm 31:21 tn Heb “blessed [be] the Lord.”
  41. Psalm 31:21 tn Heb “for he caused his faithfulness to be amazing to me in a besieged city.” The psalmist probably speaks figuratively here. He compares his crisis to being trapped in a besieged city, but the Lord answered his prayer for help. Verses 19-24 were apparently written after the Lord answered the prayer of vv. 1-18.
  42. Psalm 31:22 tn Heb “and I, I said in my haste.”
  43. Psalm 31:22 tn Heb “from before your eyes.”
  44. Psalm 31:23 tn A “faithful follower” (חָסִיד, khasid) is one who does what is right in God’s eyes and remains faithful to God (see Pss 4:3; 12:1; 16:10; 31:23; 37:28; 86:2; 97:10).
  45. Psalm 31:23 tn The participial forms in the second and third lines characterize the Lord as one who typically protects the faithful and judges the proud.
  46. Psalm 31:24 tn Heb “be strong and let your heart[s] be confident.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Matthew 27:27-66 New English Translation (NET Bible)

27 Then the governor’s soldiers took Jesus into the governor’s residence[a] and gathered the whole cohort[b] around him. 28 They[c] stripped him and put a scarlet robe[d] around him, 29 and after braiding[e] a crown of thorns,[f] they put it on his head. They[g] put a staff[h] in his right hand, and kneeling down before him, they mocked him:[i] “Hail, king of the Jews!”[j] 30 They[k] spat on him and took the staff[l] and struck him repeatedly[m] on the head. 31 When[n] they had mocked him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes back on him. Then[o] they led him away to crucify him.

The Crucifixion

32 As[p] they were going out, they found a man from Cyrene named Simon, whom they forced[q] to carry his cross.[r] 33 They[s] came to a place called Golgotha[t] (which means “Place of the Skull”)[u] 34 and offered Jesus[v] wine mixed with gall to drink.[w] But after tasting it, he would not drink it. 35 When[x] they had crucified[y] him, they divided his clothes by throwing dice.[z] 36 Then they sat down and kept guard over him there. 37 Above[aa] his head they put the charge against him,[ab] which read:[ac] “This is Jesus, the king of the Jews.” 38 Then two outlaws were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left. 39 Those[ad] who passed by defamed him, shaking their heads 40 and saying, “You who can destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself![ae] If you are God’s Son, come down[af] from the cross!” 41 In[ag] the same way even the chief priests—together with the experts in the law[ah] and elders[ai]—were mocking him:[aj] 42 “He saved others, but he cannot save himself! He is the king of Israel! If he comes down[ak] now from the cross, we will believe in him! 43 He trusts in God—let God, if he wants to, deliver him now[al] because he said, ‘I am God’s Son’!” 44 The[am] robbers who were crucified with him also spoke abusively to him.[an]

Jesus’ Death

45 Now from noon until three,[ao] darkness came over all the land.[ap] 46 At[aq] about three o’clock Jesus shouted with a loud voice,[ar]Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”[as] 47 When[at] some of the bystanders heard it, they said, “This man is calling for Elijah.” 48 Immediately[au] one of them ran and got a sponge, filled it with sour wine,[av] put it on a stick,[aw] and gave it to him to drink. 49 But the rest said, “Leave him alone! Let’s see if Elijah will come to save him.”[ax] 50 Then Jesus cried out again with a loud voice and gave up his spirit. 51 Just then[ay] the temple curtain[az] was torn in two, from top to bottom. The[ba] earth shook and the rocks were split apart. 52 And tombs were opened, and the bodies of many saints who had died[bb] were raised. 53 (They[bc] came out of the tombs after his resurrection and went into the holy city and appeared to many people.) 54 Now when the centurion[bd] and those with him who were guarding Jesus saw the earthquake and what took place, they were extremely terrified and said, “Truly this one was God’s Son!” 55 Many[be] women who had followed Jesus from Galilee and given him support[bf] were also there, watching from a distance. 56 Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

Jesus’ Burial

57 Now when it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who was also a disciple of Jesus.[bg] 58 He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.[bh] Then Pilate ordered that it be given to him. 59 Joseph[bi] took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,[bj] 60 and placed it in his own new tomb that he had cut in the rock.[bk] Then he rolled a great stone across the entrance[bl] of the tomb and went away. 61 (Now Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were sitting there, opposite the tomb.)

The Guard at the Tomb

62 The[bm] next day (which is after the day of preparation) the chief priests and the Pharisees[bn] assembled before Pilate 63 and said, “Sir, we remember that while that deceiver was still alive he said, ‘After three days I will rise again.’ 64 So give orders to secure the tomb until the third day. Otherwise his disciples may come and steal his body[bo] and say to the people, ‘He has been raised from the dead,’ and the last deception will be worse than the first.” 65 Pilate said to them, “Take[bp] a guard of soldiers. Go and make it as secure as you can.” 66 So[bq] they went with the soldiers[br] of the guard and made the tomb secure by sealing the stone.


  1. Matthew 27:27 tn Or “into their headquarters”; Grk “into the praetorium.” sn The governor’s residence (Grk “praetorium”) was the Roman governor’s official residence. The one in Jerusalem may have been Herod’s palace in the western part of the city, or the fortress Antonia northwest of the temple area.
  2. Matthew 27:27 sn A Roman cohort was a tenth of a legion, about 500-600 soldiers.
  3. Matthew 27:28 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  4. Matthew 27:28 sn The scarlet robe probably refers to a military garment that was cheaply dyed in contrast to expensive royal purple, but it resembled a king’s robe (BDAG 554 s.v. κόκκινος). The soldiers did this to Jesus as a form of mockery in view of the charges that he was a king.
  5. Matthew 27:29 tn Or “weaving.”
  6. Matthew 27:29 sn The crown may have been made from palm spines or some other thorny plant common in Israel. In placing the crown of thorns on his head, the soldiers were unwittingly symbolizing God’s curse on humanity (cf. Gen 3:18) being placed on Jesus. Their purpose would have been to mock Jesus’ claim to be a king; the crown of thorns would have represented the “radiant corona” portrayed on the heads of rulers on coins and other artifacts in the 1st century.
  7. Matthew 27:29 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  8. Matthew 27:29 tn Or “a reed.” The Greek term can mean either “staff” or “reed.” See BDAG 502 s.v. κάλαμος 2.
  9. Matthew 27:29 tn Grk “they mocked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated.
  10. Matthew 27:29 tn Or “Long live the King of the Jews!”sn The statement Hail, King of the Jews! is a mockery patterned after the Romans’ cry of Ave, Caesar (“Hail, Caesar!”).
  11. Matthew 27:30 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  12. Matthew 27:30 tn Or “the reed.”
  13. Matthew 27:30 tn The verb here has been translated as an iterative imperfect.
  14. Matthew 27:31 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  15. Matthew 27:31 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  16. Matthew 27:32 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  17. Matthew 27:32 tn Or “conscripted”; or “pressed into service.”
  18. Matthew 27:32 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help (in all probability this was only the crossbeam, called in Latin the patibulum, since the upright beam usually remained in the ground at the place of execution). Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon. Mark 15:21 names him as father of two people apparently known to Mark’s audience.
  19. Matthew 27:33 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  20. Matthew 27:33 tn This is an Aramaic name; see John 19:17.
  21. Matthew 27:33 sn A place called Golgotha (which means “Place of the Skull”). This location is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for the Greek term κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” is derived (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).
  22. Matthew 27:34 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  23. Matthew 27:34 sn It is difficult to say for certain who gave Jesus this drink of wine mixed with gall (e.g., the executioner, or perhaps women from Jerusalem). In any case, whoever gave it to him most likely did so in order to relieve his pain, but Jesus was unwilling to take it.
  24. Matthew 27:35 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  25. Matthew 27:35 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
  26. Matthew 27:35 tn Grk “by throwing the lot” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent, “throwing dice,” was chosen here because of its association with gambling. According to L&N 6.219 a term for “dice” is particularly appropriate.sn An allusion to Ps 22:18.
  27. Matthew 27:37 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  28. Matthew 27:37 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.
  29. Matthew 27:37 tn Grk “was written.”
  30. Matthew 27:39 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  31. Matthew 27:40 sn There is rich irony in the statements of those who were passing by, “save yourself!” and “come down from the cross!” In summary, they wanted Jesus to come down from the cross and save his physical life, but it was indeed his staying on the cross and giving his physical life that led to the fact that they could experience a resurrection from death to life.
  32. Matthew 27:40 tc ‡ Many significant witnesses (א* A D it sy[s],p) read καί (kai, here with the force of “then”) before κατάβηθι (katabēthi, “come down”). The shorter reading may well be due to homoioarcton, but judging by the diverse external evidence (א2 B L W Γ Δ Θ 0250 ƒ1,13 33 565 579 700 1241 1424 M lat) it is equally possible that the shorter reading is the wording of the initial text (and is so considered for this translation). NA28 puts the καί in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
  33. Matthew 27:41 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  34. Matthew 27:41 tn Or “with the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.
  35. Matthew 27:41 tn Only “chief priests” is in the nominative case; this sentence structure attempts to capture this emphasis.
  36. Matthew 27:41 tn Grk “Mocking him, the chief priests…said.”
  37. Matthew 27:42 tn Here the aorist imperative καταβάτω (katabatō) has been translated as a conditional imperative. This fits the pattern of other conditional imperatives (imperative + καί + future indicative) outlined by ExSyn 489.
  38. Matthew 27:43 sn An allusion to Ps 22:8.
  39. Matthew 27:44 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  40. Matthew 27:44 sn Matthew’s wording suggests that both of the criminals spoke abusively to him. If so, one of them quickly changed his attitude toward Jesus (see Luke 23:40-43).
  41. Matthew 27:45 tn Grk “from the sixth hour to the ninth hour.”
  42. Matthew 27:45 sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15.
  43. Matthew 27:46 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  44. Matthew 27:46 tn Grk “with a loud voice, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  45. Matthew 27:46 sn A quotation from Ps 22:1.
  46. Matthew 27:47 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  47. Matthew 27:48 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  48. Matthew 27:48 sn Sour wine refers to cheap wine that was called in Latin posca, a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and was probably there for the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion.
  49. Matthew 27:48 tn Grk “a reed.”
  50. Matthew 27:49 tc Early and significant witnesses, including the chief Alexandrian mss (א B C L Γ 1010 and some versional witnesses) add a sentence at the end of this verse: “And another [soldier] took a spear and pierced him in the side, and water and blood flowed out.” This comment finds such a strong parallel in John 19:34 that it was undoubtedly lifted from the Fourth Gospel by some early, well-meaning scribe and inserted into Matt 27:49. The alternative—that this sentence was part of Matthew’s Ausgangstext—has serious difficulties, as Metzger notes: “It might be thought that the words were omitted because they represent the piercing as preceding Jesus’ death, whereas John makes it follow; but that difference would have only been a reason for moving the passage to a later position (perhaps at the close of ver. 50 or 54 or 56), or else there would have been some tampering with the passage in John, which is not the case. It is probable that the Johannine passage was written by some reader in the margin of Matthew from memory (there are several minor differences, such as the sequence of ‘water and blood’), and a later copyist awkwardly introduced it into the text” (TCGNT, 59). Consequently, even though the support for the shorter reading (A D W Θ ƒ1,13 33 565 579 700 1241 1424 M lat sy sa bo) is not as impressive, internal considerations on its behalf are compelling.
  51. Matthew 27:51 tn Grk “And behold.”
  52. Matthew 27:51 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up.
  53. Matthew 27:51 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  54. Matthew 27:52 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaō) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.
  55. Matthew 27:53 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  56. Matthew 27:54 sn See the note on the word centurion in Matt 8:5.
  57. Matthew 27:55 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  58. Matthew 27:55 tn Grk “and ministered to him.”sn Cf. Luke 8:3.
  59. Matthew 27:57 sn Though some dispute that Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Jesus, his actions regarding Jesus’ burial suggest otherwise.
  60. Matthew 27:58 sn Asking for the body of Jesus was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Mark 15:43, Luke 23:51). He did this because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial.
  61. Matthew 27:59 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  62. Matthew 27:59 tn The term σινδών (sindōn) can refer to a linen cloth used either for clothing or for burial.
  63. Matthew 27:60 tn That is, cut or carved into an outcropping of natural rock, resulting in a cave-like structure (see L&N 19.25).
  64. Matthew 27:60 tn Or “to the door,” “against the door.”
  65. Matthew 27:62 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  66. Matthew 27:62 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.
  67. Matthew 27:64 tn Grk “him.”
  68. Matthew 27:65 tn Grk “You have a guard.”
  69. Matthew 27:66 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Pilate’s order.
  70. Matthew 27:66 tn Grk “with the guard.” The words “soldiers of the” have been supplied in the translation to prevent “guard” from being misunderstood as a single individual.
New English Translation (NET)

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