Bible Book List

1 Chronicles 19 New English Translation (NET Bible)

David’s Campaign against the Ammonites

19 Later King Nahash of the Ammonites died and his son succeeded him. David said, “I will express my loyalty[a] to Hanun son of Nahash, for his father was loyal[b] to me.” So David sent messengers to express his sympathy over his father’s death.[c] When David’s servants entered Ammonite territory to visit Hanun and express the king’s sympathy,[d] the Ammonite officials said to Hanun, “Do you really think David is trying to honor your father by sending these messengers to express his sympathy?[e] No, his servants have come to you so they can get information and spy out the land!”[f] So Hanun seized David’s servants and shaved their beards off.[g] He cut off the lower part of their robes so that their buttocks were exposed[h] and then sent them away. People[i] came and told David what had happened to the men, so he sent messengers to meet them, for the men were thoroughly humiliated. The king said, “Stay in Jericho until your beards grow again; then you may come back.”

When the Ammonites realized that David was disgusted with them,[j] Hanun and the Ammonites sent 1,000 talents[k] of silver to hire chariots and charioteers from Aram Naharaim, Aram Maacah, and Zobah.[l] They hired 32,000 chariots, along with the king of Maacah and his army, who came and camped in front of Medeba. The Ammonites also assembled from their cities and marched out to do battle.

When David heard the news, he sent Joab and the entire army to meet them.[m] The Ammonites marched out and were deployed for battle at the entrance to the city, while the kings who had come were by themselves in the field. 10 When Joab saw that the battle would be fought on two fronts, he chose some of Israel’s best men and deployed them against the Arameans.[n] 11 He put his brother Abishai in charge of the rest of the army and they were deployed against the Ammonites. 12 Joab[o] said, “If the Arameans start to overpower me,[p] you come to my rescue. If the Ammonites start to overpower you,[q] I will come to your rescue. 13 Be strong! Let’s fight bravely for the sake of our people and the cities of our God! The Lord will do what he decides is best!”[r] 14 So Joab and his men[s] marched toward the Arameans to do battle, and they fled before him. 15 When the Ammonites saw the Arameans flee, they fled before Joab’s[t] brother Abishai and withdrew into the city. Joab went back to Jerusalem.

16 When the Arameans realized they had been defeated by Israel, they sent for reinforcements from beyond the Euphrates River,[u] led by Shophach the commanding general of Hadadezer’s army.[v] 17 When David was informed, he gathered all Israel, crossed the Jordan River,[w] and marched against them.[x] David deployed his army against the Arameans for battle and they fought against him.[y] 18 The Arameans fled before Israel. David killed 7,000[z] Aramean charioteers and 40,000 infantrymen; he also killed Shophach[aa] the commanding general. 19 When Hadadezer’s subjects saw they were defeated by Israel, they made peace with David and became his subjects. The Arameans were no longer willing to help the Ammonites.


  1. 1 Chronicles 19:2 tn Heb “do loyalty.”
  2. 1 Chronicles 19:2 tn Heb “did loyalty.”
  3. 1 Chronicles 19:2 tn Heb “to console him concerning his father.”
  4. 1 Chronicles 19:2 tn Heb “and the servants of David came to the land of the sons of Ammon to Hanun to console him.”
  5. 1 Chronicles 19:3 tn Heb “Is David honoring your father in your eyes when he sends to you ones consoling?”
  6. 1 Chronicles 19:3 tc Heb “Is it not to explore and to overturn and to spy out the land (that) his servants have come to you?” The Hebrew term לַהֲפֹךְ (lahafokh, “to overturn”) seems misplaced in the sequence. Some emend the form to לַחְפֹּר (lakhpor, “to spy out”). The sequence of three infinitives may be a conflation of alternative readings.
  7. 1 Chronicles 19:4 tn Heb “shaved them.” See v. 5.
  8. 1 Chronicles 19:4 tn Heb “and he cut their robes in the middle unto the buttocks.”
  9. 1 Chronicles 19:5 tn Heb “they.” The logical referent, though not specified in the Hebrew text, has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
  10. 1 Chronicles 19:6 tn Heb “that they were a stench [i.e., disgusting] with David.”
  11. 1 Chronicles 19:6 tn The Hebrew word כִּכַּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or, by extension, to a standard unit of weight. According to the older (Babylonian) standard the “talent” weighed 130 lbs. (58.9 kg), but later this was lowered to 108.3 lbs. (49.1 kg). More recent research suggests the “light” standard talent was 67.3 lbs. (30.6 kg). Using this as the standard for calculation, the Ammonites hired chariots and charioteers for about 33.7 tons (30,600 kg) of silver.
  12. 1 Chronicles 19:6 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 10:6 has “Aram Beth Rehob and Aram Zobah.”
  13. 1 Chronicles 19:8 tn The words “the news” and “to meet them” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarification.
  14. 1 Chronicles 19:10 tc The parallel text of 2 Sam 10:10 has “the Ammonites” in place of “the Arameans” here.tn Heb “and Joab saw that the face of the battle was to him before and behind and he chose from all the best in Israel and arranged to meet Aram.”
  15. 1 Chronicles 19:12 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Joab) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  16. 1 Chronicles 19:12 tn Heb “if Aram is stronger than me.”
  17. 1 Chronicles 19:12 tn Heb “if the sons of Ammon are stronger than you.”
  18. 1 Chronicles 19:13 tn Heb “and the Lord, what is good in his eyes, he will do.”
  19. 1 Chronicles 19:14 tn Heb “and the army which was with him.”
  20. 1 Chronicles 19:15 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Joab) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  21. 1 Chronicles 19:16 tn Heb “the River,” referring to the Euphrates. This has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  22. 1 Chronicles 19:16 tn Heb “and Aram saw that they were struck down before Israel and they sent messengers and brought out Aram which is beyond the River, and Shophach the commander of the army of Hadadezer [was] before them.”
  23. 1 Chronicles 19:17 tn The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
  24. 1 Chronicles 19:17 tc The parallel text of 2 Sam 10:17 “he came to Helam.”tn Heb “and he came to them and was deployed against them.”
  25. 1 Chronicles 19:17 tn Heb “and David was deployed to meet Aram [for] battle and they fought with him.”
  26. 1 Chronicles 19:18 tc The parallel text of 2 Sam 10:18 has “seven hundred.”
  27. 1 Chronicles 19:18 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 10:18 has the variant spelling “Shobach.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 48 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 48[a]

A song, a psalm by the Korahites.

48 The Lord is great and certainly worthy of praise
in the city of our God,[b] his holy hill.
It is lofty and pleasing to look at,[c]
a source of joy to the whole earth.[d]
Mount Zion resembles the peaks of Zaphon;[e]
it is the city of the great king.
God is in its fortresses;
he reveals himself as its defender.[f]
For[g] look, the kings assemble;[h]
they advance together.
As soon as they see,[i] they are shocked;[j]
they are terrified, they quickly retreat.[k]
Look at them shake uncontrollably,[l]
like a woman writhing in childbirth.[m]
With an east wind
you shatter[n] the large ships.[o]
We heard about God’s mighty deeds; now we have seen them,[p]
in the city of the Lord of Heaven’s Armies,[q]
in the city of our God.
God makes it permanently secure.[r] (Selah)
Within your temple
we reflect on your loyal love, O God.
10 The praise you receive as far away as the ends of the earth
is worthy of your reputation, O God.[s]
You execute justice.[t]
11 Mount Zion rejoices;
the towns[u] of Judah are happy,[v]
because of your acts of judgment.[w]
12 Walk around[x] Zion. Encircle it.
Count its towers.
13 Consider its defenses.[y]
Walk through[z] its fortresses,
so you can tell the next generation about it.[aa]
14 For God, our God, is our defender forever.[ab]
He guides[ac] us.[ad]


  1. Psalm 48:1 sn Psalm 48. This so-called “Song of Zion” celebrates the greatness and glory of the Lord’s dwelling place, Jerusalem. His presence in the city elevates it above all others and assures its security.
  2. Psalm 48:1 sn The city of our God is Jerusalem, which is also referred to here as “his holy hill,” that is, Zion (see v. 2, as well as Isa 66:20; Joel 2:1; 3:17; Zech 8:3; Pss 2:6; 15:1; 43:3; 87:1; Dan 9:16).
  3. Psalm 48:2 tn Heb “beautiful of height.” The Hebrew term נוֹף (nof, “height”) is a genitive of specification after the qualitative noun “beautiful.” The idea seems to be that Mount Zion, because of its lofty appearance, is pleasing to the sight.
  4. Psalm 48:2 sn A source of joy to the whole earth. The language is hyperbolic. Zion, as the dwelling place of the universal king, is pictured as the world’s capital. The prophets anticipated this idealized picture becoming a reality in the eschaton (see Isa 2:1-4).
  5. Psalm 48:2 tn Heb “Mount Zion, the peaks of Zaphon.” Like all the preceding phrases in v. 2, both phrases are appositional to “city of our God, his holy hill” in v. 1, suggesting an identification in the poet’s mind between Mount Zion and Zaphon. “Zaphon” usually refers to the “north” in a general sense (see Pss 89:12; 107:3), but here, where it is collocated with “peaks,” it refers specifically to Mount Zaphon, located in the vicinity of ancient Ugarit and viewed as the mountain where the gods assembled (see Isa 14:13). By alluding to West Semitic mythology in this way, the psalm affirms that Mount Zion is the real divine mountain, for it is here that the Lord God of Israel lives and rules over the nations. See P. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 353, and T. N. D. Mettinger, In Search of God, 103.
  6. Psalm 48:3 tn Heb “its elevated place,” or “its refuge.”
  7. Psalm 48:4 tn The logical connection between vv. 3-4 seems to be this: God is the protector of Zion and reveals himself as the city’s defender—this is necessary because hostile armies threaten the city.
  8. Psalm 48:4 tn The perfect verbal forms in vv. 4-6 are understood as descriptive. In dramatic style (note הִנֵּה, hinneh, “look”) the psalm describes an enemy attack against the city as if it were occurring at this very moment. Another option is to take the perfects as narrational (“the kings assembled, they advanced”), referring to a particular historical event, such as Sennacherib’s siege of the city in 701 b.c. (cf. NIV, NRSV). Even if one translates the verses in a dramatic-descriptive manner (as the present translation does), the Lord’s victory over the Assyrians was probably what served as the inspiration of the description (see v. 8).
  9. Psalm 48:5 tn The object of “see” is omitted, but v. 3b suggests that the Lord’s self-revelation as the city’s defender is what they see.
  10. Psalm 48:5 tn Heb “they look, so they are shocked.” Here כֵּן (ken, “so”) has the force of “in the same measure.”
  11. Psalm 48:5 tn The translation attempts to reflect the staccato style of the Hebrew text, where the main clauses of vv. 4-6 are simply juxtaposed without connectives.
  12. Psalm 48:6 tn Heb “trembling seizes them there.” The adverb שָׁם (sham, “there”) is used here, as often in poetic texts, to point “to a spot in which a scene is localized vividly in the imagination” (BDB 1027 s.v.).
  13. Psalm 48:6 tn Heb “[with] writhing like one giving birth.”sn The language of vv. 5-6 is reminiscent of Exod 15:15.
  14. Psalm 48:7 tn The switch to the imperfect, as well as the introduction of the ship metaphor, perhaps signals a change to a generalizing tone; the Lord typically shatters these large ships, symbolic of the human strength of hostile armies (see the following note on “large ships”). The verb שָׁבַר (shavar, “break”) appears in the Piel here (see Pss 29:5; 46:9). In the OT it occurs thirty-six times in the Piel, always with multiple objects (the object is either a collective singular or grammatically plural or dual form). The Piel may highlight the repetition of the pluralative action, or it may suggest an intensification of action, indicating repeated action comprising a whole, perhaps with the nuance “break again and again, break in pieces.” Another option is to understand the form as resultative: “make broken” (see IBHS 404-7 §24.3).
  15. Psalm 48:7 tn Heb “the ships of Tarshish.” This probably refers to large ships either made in or capable of traveling to and from the distant western port of Tarshish. These ships, which were the best of their class, here symbolize the mere human strength of hostile armies, which are incapable of withstanding the Lord’s divine power (see Isa 2:16).
  16. Psalm 48:8 tn Heb “As we have heard, so we have seen.” The community had heard about God’s mighty deeds in the nation’s history. Having personally witnessed his saving power with their own eyes, they could now affirm that the tradition was not exaggerated or inaccurate.
  17. Psalm 48:8 tn Heb “the Lord of hosts.” The title “Lord of hosts” here pictures the Lord as a mighty warrior-king who leads armies into battle (see Pss 24:10; 46:7, 11).
  18. Psalm 48:8 tn Or “God makes it secure forever.” The imperfect highlights the characteristic nature of the generalizing statement.
  19. Psalm 48:10 tn Heb “like your name, O God, so [is] your praise to the ends of the earth.” Here “name” refers to God’s reputation and revealed character.
  20. Psalm 48:10 tn Heb “your right hand is full of justice.” The “right hand” suggests activity and power.
  21. Psalm 48:11 tn Heb “daughters.” The reference is to the cities of Judah surrounding Zion (see Ps 97:8 and H. Haag, TDOT 2:336).
  22. Psalm 48:11 tn The prefixed verbal forms are understood as generalizing imperfects. (For other examples of an imperfect followed by causal לְמַעַן [lemaʿan], see Ps 23:3; Isa 49:7; 55:5.) Another option is to interpret the forms as jussives, “Let Mount Zion rejoice! Let the towns of Judah be happy!” (cf. NASB, NRSV; note the imperatives in vv. 12-13.)
  23. Psalm 48:11 sn These acts of judgment are described in vv. 4-7.
  24. Psalm 48:12 tn The verb forms in vv. 12-13 are plural; the entire Judahite community is addressed.
  25. Psalm 48:13 tn Heb “set your heart to its rampart.”
  26. Psalm 48:13 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word translated “walk through,” which occurs only here in the OT, is uncertain. Cf. NEB “pass…in review”; NIV “view.”
  27. Psalm 48:13 sn The city’s towers, defenses, and fortresses are outward reminders and tangible symbols of the divine protection the city enjoys.
  28. Psalm 48:14 tn Heb “for this is God, our God, forever and ever.” “This” might be paraphrased, “this protector described and praised in the preceding verses.”
  29. Psalm 48:14 tn The imperfect highlights the characteristic nature of the generalizing statement.
  30. Psalm 48:14 tn In the Hebrew text the psalm ends with the words עַל־מוּת (ʿal-mut, “upon [unto?] dying”), which make little, if any, sense. M. Dahood (Psalms [AB], 1:293) proposes an otherwise unattested plural form עֹלָמוֹת (ʿolamot; from עוֹלָם, ʿolam, “eternity”). This would provide a nice parallel to עוֹלָם וָעֶד (ʿolam vaʿed, “forever”) in the preceding line, but elsewhere the plural of עוֹלָם appears as עֹלָמִים (ʿolamim). It is preferable to understand the phrase as a musical direction of some sort (see עַל־מוּת [ʿal-mut] in the superscription of Ps 9) or to emend the text to עַל־עֲלָמוֹת (ʿal ʿalamot, “according to the alamoth style”; see the heading of Ps 46). In either case it should be understood as belonging with the superscription of the following psalm.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Mark 15 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Jesus Brought Before Pilate

15 Early in the morning, after forming a plan, the chief priests with the elders and the experts in the law[a] and the whole Sanhedrin tied Jesus up, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate.[b] So[c] Pilate asked him, “Are you the king[d] of the Jews?” He replied,[e] “You say so.”[f] Then[g] the chief priests began to accuse him repeatedly. So Pilate asked him again,[h] “Have you nothing to say? See how many charges they are bringing against you!” But Jesus made no further reply, so that Pilate was amazed.

Jesus and Barabbas

During the feast it was customary to release one prisoner to the people,[i] whomever they requested. A man named Barabbas was imprisoned with rebels who had committed murder during an insurrection. Then the crowd came up and began to ask Pilate to release a prisoner for them, as was his custom.[j] So Pilate asked them,[k] “Do you want me to release the king of the Jews for you?” 10 (For he knew that the chief priests had handed him over because of envy.)[l] 11 But the chief priests stirred up the crowd to have him release[m] Barabbas instead. 12 So Pilate spoke to them again,[n] “Then what do you want me to do[o] with the one you call king of the Jews?” 13 They shouted back, “Crucify[p] him!” 14 Pilate asked them, “Why? What has he done wrong?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!” 15 Because he wanted to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas for them. Then,[q] after he had Jesus flogged,[r] he handed him over[s] to be crucified.

Jesus is Mocked

16 So[t] the soldiers led him into the palace (that is, the governor’s residence)[u] and called together the whole cohort.[v] 17 They put a purple cloak[w] on him and after braiding[x] a crown of thorns,[y] they put it on him. 18 They began to salute him: “Hail, king of the Jews!”[z] 19 Again and again[aa] they struck him on the head with a staff[ab] and spit on him. Then they knelt down and paid homage to him. 20 When they had finished mocking[ac] him, they stripped him of the purple cloak and put his own clothes back on him. Then[ad] they led him away to crucify him.[ae]

The Crucifixion

21 The soldiers[af] forced[ag] a passerby to carry his cross,[ah] Simon of Cyrene, who was coming in from the country[ai] (he was the father of Alexander and Rufus). 22 They brought Jesus[aj] to a place called Golgotha[ak] (which is translated, “Place of the Skull”).[al] 23 They offered him wine mixed with myrrh,[am] but he did not take it. 24 Then[an] they crucified[ao] him and divided his clothes, throwing dice[ap] for them, to decide what each would take. 25 It was nine o’clock in the morning[aq] when they crucified him. 26 The inscription[ar] of the charge against him read, “The king of the Jews.” 27 And they crucified two outlaws with him, one on his right and one on his left.[as] 29 Those who passed by defamed him, shaking their heads and saying, “Aha! You who can destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, 30 save yourself and come down from the cross!”[at] 31 In the same way even the chief priests—together with the experts in the law[au]—were mocking him among themselves:[av] “He saved others, but he cannot save himself! 32 Let the Christ,[aw] the king of Israel, come down from the cross now, that we may see and believe!” Those who were crucified with him also spoke abusively to him.[ax]

Jesus’ Death

33 Now[ay] when it was noon,[az] darkness came over the whole land[ba] until three in the afternoon.[bb] 34 Around three o’clock[bc] Jesus cried out with a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?[bd] 35 When some of the bystanders heard it they said, “Listen, he is calling for Elijah!”[be] 36 Then someone ran, filled a sponge with sour wine,[bf] put it on a stick,[bg] and gave it to him to drink, saying, “Leave him alone! Let’s see if Elijah will come to take him down!” 37 But Jesus cried out with a loud voice and breathed his last. 38 And the temple curtain[bh] was torn in two, from top to bottom. 39 Now when the centurion,[bi] who stood in front of him, saw how he died,[bj] he said, “Truly this man was God’s Son!” 40 There were also women, watching from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses,[bk] and Salome. 41 When he was in Galilee, they had followed him and given him support.[bl] Many other women who had come up with him to Jerusalem were there too.

Jesus’ Burial

42 Now[bm] when evening had already come, since it was the day of preparation (that is, the day before the Sabbath),[bn] 43 Joseph of Arimathea, a highly regarded member of the council,[bo] who was himself looking forward to[bp] the kingdom of God,[bq] went boldly to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.[br] 44 Pilate was surprised that he was already dead. He[bs] called the centurion[bt] and asked him if he had been dead for some time. 45 When Pilate[bu] was informed by the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph. 46 After Joseph[bv] bought a linen cloth[bw] and took down the body, he wrapped it in the linen and placed it in a tomb cut out of the rock.[bx] Then[by] he rolled a stone across the entrance[bz] of the tomb. 47 Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses saw where the body[ca] was placed.


  1. Mark 15:1 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  2. Mark 15:1 sn The Jews most assuredly wanted to put Jesus to death, but they lacked the authority to do so. For this reason they handed him over to Pilate in hopes of securing a death sentence. The Romans kept close control of the death penalty in conquered territories to prevent it being used to execute Roman sympathizers.
  3. Mark 15:2 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action in the narrative.
  4. Mark 15:2 snAre you the king of the Jews?” Pilate was interested in this charge because of its political implications of sedition against Rome.
  5. Mark 15:2 tn Grk “answering, he said to him.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant, but the syntax of the phrase has been modified for clarity.
  6. Mark 15:2 sn The reply “You say so” is somewhat enigmatic, like Jesus’ earlier reply to the Jewish leadership (mentioned in Matt 26:64 and Luke 22:70).
  7. Mark 15:3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  8. Mark 15:4 tn Grk “Pilate asked him again, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant and has not been translated.
  9. Mark 15:6 tn Grk “them”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.sn The custom of Pilate to release one prisoner to them is unknown outside the gospels in Jewish writings, but it was a Roman custom at the time and thus probably used in Palestine as well (cf. Matt 27:15; John 18:39); see W. W. Wessel, “Mark,” EBC 8:773-74.
  10. Mark 15:8 tn Grk “Coming up the crowd began to ask [him to do] as he was doing for them.”
  11. Mark 15:9 tn Grk “Pilate answered them, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant and has not been translated.
  12. Mark 15:10 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  13. Mark 15:11 tn Grk “to have him release for them.”
  14. Mark 15:12 tn Grk “answering, Pilate spoke to them again.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant and has not been translated.
  15. Mark 15:12 tc Instead of “what do you want me to do” several witnesses, including the most significant ones (א B C W Δ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 892), lack θέλετε (thelete, “you want”), turning the question into the more abrupt “what should I do?” Although the witnesses for the longer reading are not as significant (A D Θ 0250 M latt sy), the reading without θέλετε conforms to Matt 27:22 and thus is suspected of being a scribal emendation. The known scribal tendency to assimilate one synoptic passage to another parallel, coupled with the lack of such assimilation in mss that are otherwise known to do this most frequently (the Western and Byzantine texts), suggests that θέλετε is authentic. Further, Mark’s known style of being generally more verbose and redundant than Matthew’s argues that θέλετε is authentic here. That this is the longer reading, however, and that a good variety of witnesses omit the word, gives one pause. Perhaps the wording without θέλετε would have been perceived as having greater homiletical value, motivating scribes to move in this direction. A decision is difficult, but on the whole internal evidence leads toward regarding θέλετε as authentic.
  16. Mark 15:13 sn Crucifixion was the cruelest form of punishment practiced by the Romans. Roman citizens could not normally undergo it. It was reserved for the worst crimes, like treason and evasion of due process in a capital case. The Roman historian Cicero called it “a cruel and disgusting penalty” (Against Verres 2.5.63-66 §§163-70); Josephus (J. W. 7.6.4 [7.203]) called it the worst of deaths.
  17. Mark 15:15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  18. Mark 15:15 tn The Greek term φραγελλόω (phragelloō) refers to flogging. BDAG 1064 s.v. states, “flog, scourge, a punishment inflicted on slaves and provincials after a sentence of death had been pronounced on them. So in the case of Jesus before the crucifixion…Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15.”sn A Roman flogging (traditionally, “scourging”) was an excruciating punishment. The victim was stripped of his clothes and bound to a post with his hands fastened above him (or sometimes he was thrown to the ground). Guards standing on either side of the victim would incessantly beat him with a whip (flagellum) made out of leather with pieces of lead and bone inserted into its ends. While the Jews only allowed 39 lashes, the Romans had no such limit; many people who received such a beating died as a result. See C. Schneider, TDNT, 4:515-19.
  19. Mark 15:15 tn Or “delivered him up.”
  20. Mark 15:16 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “So” to indicate that the soldiers’ action is in response to Pilate’s condemnation of the prisoner in v. 15.
  21. Mark 15:16 tn Grk “(that is, the praetorium).” sn The governor’s residence (Grk “praetorium”) was the Roman governor’s official residence. The one in Jerusalem may have been Herod’s palace in the western part of the city, or the fortress Antonia northwest of the temple area.
  22. Mark 15:16 sn A Roman cohort was a tenth of a legion, about 500-600 soldiers.
  23. Mark 15:17 sn The purple cloak probably refers to a military garment which had the color of royal purple, and thus resembled a king’s robe. The soldiers did this to Jesus as a form of mockery in view of the charges that he was a king (cf. 15:2).
  24. Mark 15:17 tn Or “weaving.”
  25. Mark 15:17 sn The crown may have been made from palm spines or some other thorny plant common in Israel. In placing the crown of thorns on his head, the soldiers were unwittingly symbolizing God’s curse on humanity (cf. Gen 3:18) being placed on Jesus. Their purpose would have been to mock Jesus’ claim to be a king; the crown of thorns would have represented the “radiant corona” portrayed on the heads of rulers on coins and other artifacts in the 1st century.
  26. Mark 15:18 tn Or “Long live the King of the Jews!”sn The statement Hail, King of the Jews! is a mockery patterned after the Romans’ cry of Ave, Caesar (“Hail, Caesar!”).
  27. Mark 15:19 tn The verb here has been translated as an iterative imperfect.
  28. Mark 15:19 tn Or “a reed.” The Greek term can mean either “staff” or “reed.” See BDAG 502 s.v. κάλαμος 2.
  29. Mark 15:20 tn The aorist tense is taken consummatively here.
  30. Mark 15:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  31. Mark 15:20 sn See the note on Crucify in 15:13.
  32. Mark 15:21 tn Grk “They”; the referent (the soldiers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  33. Mark 15:21 tn Or “conscripted”; or “pressed into service.”
  34. Mark 15:21 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help (in all probability this was only the crossbeam, called in Latin the patibulum, since the upright beam usually remained in the ground at the place of execution). Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon.
  35. Mark 15:21 tn Or perhaps, “was coming in from his field” outside the city (BDAG 15-16 s.v. ἀγρός 1).
  36. Mark 15:22 tn Grk “him.”
  37. Mark 15:22 tn Grk “a place, Golgotha.” This is an Aramaic name; see John 19:17.
  38. Mark 15:22 sn The place called Golgotha (which is translated “Place of the Skull”). This location is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for the Greek term κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” is derived (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).
  39. Mark 15:23 sn It is difficult to say for certain who gave Jesus this drink of wine mixed with myrrh (e.g., the executioner, or perhaps women from Jerusalem). In any case, whoever gave it to him most likely did so in order to relieve his pain, but Jesus was unwilling to take it.
  40. Mark 15:24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  41. Mark 15:24 sn See the note on Crucify in 15:13.
  42. Mark 15:24 tn Grk “by throwing the lot” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent, “throwing dice,” was chosen here because of its association with gambling. According to L&N 6.219 a term for “dice” is particularly appropriate.sn An allusion to Ps 22:18.
  43. Mark 15:25 tn Grk “It was the third hour.” This time would have been approximate, and could refer to the beginning of the process, some time before Jesus was lifted on the cross.
  44. Mark 15:26 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.
  45. Mark 15:27 tc Most later mss add 15:28 “And the scripture was fulfilled that says, ‘He was counted with the lawless ones.’” Verse 28 is included in L Θ 083 0250 ƒ1,13 33 M lat, but is lacking in significant Alexandrian and Western mss and some others (א A B C D Ψ). The addition of the verse with its quotation from Isa 53:12 probably represents a scribal assimilation from Luke 22:37. It was almost certainly not an original part of Mark’s Gospel. The present translation follows NA28 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.
  46. Mark 15:30 sn There is rich irony in the statement of those who were passing by, “Save yourself and come down from the cross!” In summary, they wanted Jesus to come down from the cross and save his physical life, but it was indeed his staying on the cross and giving his physical life that led to the fact that they could experience a resurrection from death to life. There is a similar kind of irony in the statement made by the chief priests and experts in the law in 15:31.
  47. Mark 15:31 tn Or “with the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22. Only “chief priests” is in the nominative case; this sentence structure attempts to capture this emphasis.
  48. Mark 15:31 tn Grk “Mocking him, the chief priests…said among themselves.”
  49. Mark 15:32 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.
  50. Mark 15:32 sn Mark’s wording suggests that both of the criminals spoke abusively to him. If so, one of them quickly changed his attitude toward Jesus (see Luke 23:40-43).
  51. Mark 15:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  52. Mark 15:33 tn Grk “When the sixth hour had come.”
  53. Mark 15:33 sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15.
  54. Mark 15:33 tn Grk “until the ninth hour.”
  55. Mark 15:34 tn The repetition of the phrase “three o’clock” preserves the author’s rougher, less elegant style (cf. Matt 27:45-46; Luke 23:44). Although such stylistic matters are frequently handled differently in the translation, because the issue of synoptic literary dependence is involved here, it was considered important to reflect some of the stylistic differences among the synoptics in the translation, so that the English reader can be aware of them.
  56. Mark 15:34 sn A quotation from Ps 22:1.
  57. Mark 15:35 sn Perhaps the crowd thought Jesus was calling for Elijah because the exclamation “my God, my God” (i.e., in Aramaic, Eloi, Eloi) sounds like the name Elijah.
  58. Mark 15:36 sn Sour wine refers to cheap wine that was called in Latin posca, a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and was probably there for the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion.
  59. Mark 15:36 tn Grk “a reed.”
  60. Mark 15:38 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up. It also pictures a judgment that includes the sacrifices.
  61. Mark 15:39 sn A centurion was a noncommissioned officer in the Roman army or one of the auxiliary territorial armies, commanding a centuria of (nominally) 100 men. The responsibilities of centurions were broadly similar to modern junior officers, but there was a wide gap in social status between them and officers, and relatively few were promoted beyond the rank of senior centurion. The Roman troops stationed in Judea were auxiliaries, who would normally be rewarded with Roman citizenship after 25 years of service. Some of the centurions throughout the region may have served originally in the Roman legions (regular army) and thus gained their citizenship at enlistment. Others may have inherited it, like the apostle Paul did (cf. Acts 22:28).
  62. Mark 15:39 tn Grk “the way he breathed his last”; or “the way he expired”; or “that he thus breathed no more.”
  63. Mark 15:40 sn In Matt 27:56 the name Joses is written as Joseph.
  64. Mark 15:41 tn Grk “and ministered to him.”sn Cf. Luke 8:3.
  65. Mark 15:42 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic and introduction of a new character.
  66. Mark 15:42 sn The day of preparation was the day before the Sabbath when everything had to be prepared for it, as no work could be done on the Sabbath.
  67. Mark 15:43 tn Grk “a councillor” (as a member of the Sanhedrin, see L&N 11.85). This indicates that some individuals among the leaders did respond to Jesus.
  68. Mark 15:43 tn Or “waiting for.”sn Though some dispute that Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Jesus, this remark that he was looking forward to the kingdom of God and his actions regarding Jesus’ burial suggest otherwise.
  69. Mark 15:43 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself.
  70. Mark 15:43 sn Asking for the body of Jesus was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Luke 23:51). He did this because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial.
  71. Mark 15:44 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  72. Mark 15:44 sn See the note on the word centurion in 15:39.
  73. Mark 15:45 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Pilate) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  74. Mark 15:46 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Joseph of Arimathea) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  75. Mark 15:46 tn The term σινδών (sindōn) can refer to a linen cloth used either for clothing or for burial.
  76. Mark 15:46 tn That is, cut or carved into an outcropping of natural rock, resulting in a cave-like structure (see L&N 19.25).
  77. Mark 15:46 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  78. Mark 15:46 tn Or “to the door,” “against the door.”
  79. Mark 15:47 tn Grk “it”; the referent (Jesus’ body) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.


1 of 1

You'll get this book and many others when you join Bible Gateway Plus. Learn more

Viewing of
Cross references