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1 Chronicles 1 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Adam’s Descendants

Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalalel, Jered, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.[a]

Japheth’s Descendants

The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath,[b] and Togarmah.

The sons[c] of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittites, and the Rodanites.[d]

Ham’s Descendants

The sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim,[e] Put, and Canaan.

The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raamah, and Sabteca.

The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.

10 Cush was the father of Nimrod, who established himself as a mighty warrior on earth.[f]

11 Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, 12 Pathrusites, Casluhites (from whom the Philistines descended[g]) , and the Caphtorites.

13 Canaan was the father of Sidon—his firstborn—and Heth, 14 as well as the Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, 15 Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, 16 Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites.

Shem’s Descendants

17 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.

The sons of Aram:[h] Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshech.[i]

18 Arphaxad was the father of Shelah, and Shelah was the father of Eber. 19 Two sons were born to Eber: the first was named Peleg, for during his lifetime the earth was divided;[j] his brother’s name was Joktan.

20 Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 21 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 22 Ebal,[k] Abimael, Sheba, 23 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan.

24 Shem, Arphaxad, Shelah,[l] 25 Eber, Peleg, Reu, 26 Serug, Nahor, Terah, 27 Abram (that is, Abraham).

28 The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ishmael.

29 These were their descendants:

Ishmael’s Descendants

Ishmael’s firstborn son was Nebaioth; the others were[m] Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 30 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, 31 Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These were the sons of Ishmael.

Keturah’s Descendants

32 The sons to whom Keturah, Abraham’s concubine,[n] gave birth: Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, Shuah.

The sons of Jokshan: Sheba and Dedan.

33 The sons of Midian: Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah.

Isaac’s Descendants

34 Abraham was the father of Isaac. The sons of Isaac: Esau and Israel.

Esau’s Descendants

35 The sons of Esau: Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.

36 The sons of Eliphaz: Teman, Omar, Zephi,[o] Gatam, Kenaz, and (by Timna) Amalek.[p]

37 The sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.

The Descendants of Seir

38 The sons of Seir: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan.

39 The sons of Lotan: Hori and Homam. (Timna was Lotan’s sister.)[q]

40 The sons of Shobal: Alyan,[r] Manahath, Ebal, Shephi,[s] and Onam.

The sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah.

41 The son[t] of Anah: Dishon.

The sons of Dishon: Hamran,[u] Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.

42 The sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, Jaakan.[v]

The sons of Dishan:[w] Uz and Aran.

Kings of Edom

43 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king ruled over the Israelites: Bela son of Beor; the name of his city was Dinhabah.

44 When Bela died, Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah, succeeded him.[x]

45 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites succeeded him.

46 When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad succeeded him. He struck down the Midianites in the plains of Moab; the name of his city was Avith.

47 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah succeeded him.

48 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth on the River[y] succeeded him.

49 When Shaul died, Baal Hanan son of Achbor succeeded him.

50 When Baal Hanan died, Hadad succeeded him; the name of his city was Pai.[z] His wife[aa] was Mehetabel, daughter of Matred, daughter of Me-Zahab.

51 Hadad died.

Tribal Chiefs of Edom

The tribal chiefs of Edom were: Timna, Alvah, Jetheth, 52 Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, 53 Kenaz, Teman,[ab] Mibzar, 54 Magdiel, and Iram.[ac] These were the tribal chiefs of Edom.


  1. 1 Chronicles 1:4 tc The LXX reads “Noah; the sons of Noah [were] Shem, Ham, and Japheth.” Several English translations (e.g., NIV, NLT) follow the LXX.sn Shem, Ham, and Japheth were Noah’s three sons (Gen 6:10).
  2. 1 Chronicles 1:6 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss, along with the LXX and Vulgate, read “Riphath” (see Gen 10:3). This is followed by several English translations (e.g., NAB, NIV, NLT), while others (e.g., ASV, NASB, NRSV) follow the MT reading (“Diphath”).
  3. 1 Chronicles 1:7 tn Or in this case, “descendants.”
  4. 1 Chronicles 1:7 tc The Kethib has רוֹדָנִים (Rodanim), which probably refers to the island of Rhodes. The Qere has דּוֹדָנִים (Dodanim), which refers to one of the most ancient and revered locations in ancient Greece. The MT and most medieval Hebrew mss of the parallel list in Gen 10:4 read “Dodanim,” but a few have “Rodanim.”tn Heb “Kittim and Rodanim.”
  5. 1 Chronicles 1:8 tn That is, “Egypt.”
  6. 1 Chronicles 1:10 tn Heb “he began to be a mighty warrior in the earth.”
  7. 1 Chronicles 1:12 tn Heb “came forth.”
  8. 1 Chronicles 1:17 tc The words “the sons of Aram” do not appear in the Hebrew text. Apparently the phrase וּבְנֵי אֲרָם (uvene ʾaram) has accidentally dropped out of the text by homoioteleuton (note the presence of אֲרָם just before this). The phrase is included in Gen 10:23.
  9. 1 Chronicles 1:17 tc The MT of the parallel geneaology in Gen 10:23 reads “Mash,” but the LXX there reads “Meshech” in agreement with 1 Chr 1:17.
  10. 1 Chronicles 1:19 sn Perhaps this refers to the scattering of the people at Babel (Gen 11:1-9).
  11. 1 Chronicles 1:22 tc Some medieval Hebrew mss and the Syriac read “Obal” (see Gen 10:28).
  12. 1 Chronicles 1:24 tc Some LXX mss read “Arphaxad, Cainan, Shelah” (see also the notes on Gen 10:24; 11:12-13).
  13. 1 Chronicles 1:29 tn The words “the others were” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  14. 1 Chronicles 1:32 sn A concubine was a slave woman in ancient Near Eastern societies who was the legal property of her master, but who could have legitimate sexual relations with her master. A concubine’s status was more elevated than a mere servant, but she was not free and did not have the legal rights of a free wife. The children of a concubine could, in some instances, become equal heirs with the children of the free wife. After the period of the Judges concubines may have become more of a royal prerogative (2 Sam 21:10-14; 1 Kgs 11:3).
  15. 1 Chronicles 1:36 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss, along with some LXX mss and the Syriac, read “Zepho” (see Gen 36:11).
  16. 1 Chronicles 1:36 tn The Hebrew text has simply, “and Timna and Amalek,” but Gen 36:12 indicates that Timna, a concubine of Eliphaz, was the mother of Amalek. See also v. 39 below, which states that Timna was the sister of Lotan.
  17. 1 Chronicles 1:39 tn Perhaps this is the Timna mentioned in v. 36.
  18. 1 Chronicles 1:40 tc Some medieval Hebrew mss and a few LXX mss read “Alvan” (see Gen 36:23).
  19. 1 Chronicles 1:40 tc A few medieval Hebrew mss read “Shepho” (see Gen 36:23).
  20. 1 Chronicles 1:41 tn Heb “sons.” The Hebrew text has the plural, but only one son is listed. For stylistic reasons the singular “son” was used in the translation.
  21. 1 Chronicles 1:41 tn The parallel geneaology in Gen 36:26 has the variant spelling “Hemdan.” Some English versions follow the variant spelling here (e.g., NAB, NIV, NCV, CEV, NLT).
  22. 1 Chronicles 1:42 tn The parallel geneaology in Gen 36:27 has the variant spelling “Akan.” Among English versions that use the variant spelling here are NIV, NCV, NLT.
  23. 1 Chronicles 1:42 tc The MT reads “Dishon” here, but this should be emended to “Dishan.” See the list in v. 38 and Gen 36:28.
  24. 1 Chronicles 1:44 tn Heb “ruled in his place,” here and in vv. 45-50.
  25. 1 Chronicles 1:48 tn Or “near the river.” sn The river may refer to the Euphrates River (cf. NRSV, CEV, NLT).
  26. 1 Chronicles 1:50 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss, along with some LXX mss, the Syriac, and Vulgate, read “Pau.” See also Gen 36:39.
  27. 1 Chronicles 1:50 tn Heb “The name of his wife.”
  28. 1 Chronicles 1:53 tn The parallel genealogy in Gen 36:42 has the variant spelling “Temam.”
  29. 1 Chronicles 1:54 tn Each of the names in this list is preceded by the word “chief” in the Hebrew text. This has not been included in the translation because it would appear very redundant to the modern reader.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 30 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 30[a]

A psalm, a song used at the dedication of the temple;[b] by David.

30 I will praise you, O Lord, for you lifted me up,[c]
and did not allow my enemies to gloat[d] over me.
O Lord my God,
I cried out to you and you healed me.[e]
O Lord, you pulled me[f] up from Sheol;
you rescued me from among those descending into the grave.[g]
Sing to the Lord, you faithful followers[h] of his;
give thanks to his holy name.[i]
For his anger lasts only a brief moment,
and his good favor restores one’s life.[j]
One may experience sorrow during the night,
but joy arrives in the morning.[k]
In my self-confidence I said,
“I will never be shaken.”[l]
O Lord, in your good favor you made me secure.[m]
Then you rejected me[n] and I was terrified.
To you, O Lord, I cried out;
I begged the Lord for mercy:[o]
“What[p] profit is there in taking my life,[q]
in my descending into the Pit?[r]
Can the dust of the grave[s] praise you?
Can it declare your loyalty?[t]
10 Hear, O Lord, and have mercy on me.
O Lord, deliver me.”[u]
11 Then you turned my lament into dancing;
you removed my sackcloth and covered me with joy.[v]
12 So now[w] my heart[x] will sing to you and not be silent;
O Lord my God, I will always[y] give thanks to you.


  1. Psalm 30:1 sn Psalm 30. The author thanks the Lord for delivering him from death and urges others to join him in praise. The psalmist experienced divine discipline for a brief time, but when he cried out for help the Lord intervened and restored his favor.
  2. Psalm 30:1 tn Heb “a song of the dedication of the house.” The referent of “house” is unclear. It is possible that David wrote this psalm for the dedication ceremony of Solomon’s temple. Another possibility is that the psalm was used on the occasion of the dedication of the second temple following the return from exile, or on the occasion of the rededication of the temple in Maccabean times.
  3. Psalm 30:1 tn Elsewhere the verb דָּלָה (dalah) is used of drawing water from a well (Exod 2:16, 19; Prov 20:5). The psalmist was trapped in the pit leading to Sheol (see v. 3), but the Lord hoisted him up. The Piel stem is used here, perhaps suggesting special exertion on the Lord’s part.
  4. Psalm 30:1 tn Or “rejoice.”
  5. Psalm 30:2 sn You healed me. Apparently the psalmist was plagued by a serious illness that threatened his life. See Ps 41.
  6. Psalm 30:3 tn Or “my life.”
  7. Psalm 30:3 tn Heb “you kept me alive from those descending into the pit.” The Hebrew noun בּוֹר (bor, “pit, cistern”) is sometimes used of the grave and/or the realm of the dead. The translation follows the consonantal Hebrew text (Kethib); the marginal reading (Qere) has, “you kept me alive so that I did not go down into the pit.”
  8. Psalm 30:4 tn A “faithful follower” (חָסִיד) is one who does what is right in God’s eyes and remains faithful to God (see Pss 4:3; 12:1; 16:10; 31:23; 37:28; 86:2; 97:10).
  9. Psalm 30:4 tn Heb “to his holy remembrance.” The noun זֵכֵר (zekher, “remembrance”) here refers to the name of the Lord as invoked in liturgy and praise. Cf. Pss 6:5; 97:12.The Lord’s “name” is “holy” in the sense that it is a reminder of his uniqueness and greatness.
  10. Psalm 30:5 tn Heb “for [there is] a moment in his anger, [but] life in his favor.” Because of the parallelism with “moment,” some understand חַיִּים (khayyim) in a quantitative sense: “lifetime” (cf. NIV, NRSV). However, the immediate context, which emphasizes deliverance from death (see v. 3), suggests that חַיִּים has a qualitative sense: “physical life” or even “prosperous life” (cf. NEB “in his favour there is life”).
  11. Psalm 30:5 tn Heb “in the evening weeping comes to lodge, but at morning a shout of joy.” “Weeping” is personified here as a traveler who lodges with one temporarily.
  12. Psalm 30:6 sn In my self-confidence I said… Here the psalmist begins to fill in the background of the crisis referred to in the earlier verses. He had been arrogant and self-confident, so the Lord withdrew his protection and allowed trouble to invade his life (vv. 8-11).
  13. Psalm 30:7 tn Heb “in your good favor you caused to stand for my mountain strength.” Apparently this means “you established strength for my mountain” (“mountain” in this case representing his rule, which would be centered on Mt. Zion) or “you established strength as my mountain” (“mountain” in this case being a metaphor for security).
  14. Psalm 30:7 tn Heb “you hid your face.” The idiom “hide the face” can mean “ignore” (see Pss 10:11; 13:1; 51:9) or, as here, carry the stronger idea of “reject” (see Ps 88:14).
  15. Psalm 30:8 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 8 are probably preterites; the psalmist recalls that he prayed in his time of crisis.
  16. Psalm 30:9 sn The following two verses (vv. 9-10) contain the prayer (or an excerpt of the prayer) that the psalmist offered to the Lord during his crisis.
  17. Psalm 30:9 tn Heb “What profit [is there] in my blood?” “Blood” here represents his life.
  18. Psalm 30:9 tn The Hebrew term שָׁחַת (shakhat, “pit”) is often used as a title for Sheol (see Pss 16:10; 49:9; 55:24 HT [55:23 ET]; 103:4).
  19. Psalm 30:9 tn Heb “dust.” The words “of the grave” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  20. Psalm 30:9 tn The rhetorical questions anticipate the answer, “Of course not!”sn According to the OT, those who descend into the realm of death/Sheol are cut off from God’s mighty deeds and from the worshiping covenant community that experiences divine intervention (Pss 6:5; 88:10-12; Isa 38:18). In his effort to elicit a positive divine response, the psalmist reminds God that he will receive no praise or glory if he allows the psalmist to die. Dead men do not praise God!
  21. Psalm 30:10 tn Heb “be a helper to me.”
  22. Psalm 30:11 sn Covered me with joy. “Joy” probably stands metonymically for festive attire here.
  23. Psalm 30:12 tn Heb “so that”; or “in order that.”
  24. Psalm 30:12 tn Heb “glory.” Some view כָבוֹד (khavod, “glory”) here as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kevedi, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 16:9; 57:9; 108:1, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:90. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.” “Heart” is used in the translation above for the sake of English idiom; the expression “my liver sings” would seem odd indeed to the modern reader.
  25. Psalm 30:12 tn Or “forever.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Matthew 27:1-26 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Jesus Brought Before Pilate

27 When[a] it was early in the morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people plotted against Jesus to execute him. They[b] tied him up, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate[c] the governor.[d]

Judas’ Suicide

Now when[e] Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus[f] had been condemned, he regretted what he had done and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders, saying, “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood!” But they said, “What is that to us? You take care of it yourself!” So[g] Judas threw the silver coins into the temple and left. Then he went out and hanged himself. The[h] chief priests took the silver and said, “It is not lawful to put this into the temple treasury, since it is blood money.” After[i] consulting together they bought the Potter’s Field with it, as a burial place for foreigners. For this reason that field has been called the “Field of Blood” to this day. Then what was spoken by Jeremiah[j] the prophet was fulfilled: “They took the thirty silver coins, the price of the one whose price had been set by the people of Israel,[k] 10 and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me.”[l]

Jesus and Pilate

11 Then[m] Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor asked him,[n] “Are you the king[o] of the Jews?” Jesus[p] said, “You say so.”[q] 12 But when he was accused by the chief priests and the elders, he did not respond. 13 Then Pilate said to him, “Don’t you hear how many charges they are bringing against you?” 14 But he did not answer even one accusation, so that the governor was quite amazed.

15 During the feast the governor was accustomed to release one prisoner to the crowd,[r] whomever they wanted. 16 At that time they had in custody a notorious prisoner named Jesus[s] Barabbas. 17 So after they had assembled, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus[t] Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Christ?”[u] 18 (For he knew that they had handed him over because of envy.)[v] 19 As[w] he was sitting on the judgment seat,[x] his wife sent a message[y] to him:[z] “Have nothing to do with that innocent man;[aa] I have suffered greatly as a result of a dream[ab] about him today.” 20 But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. 21 The[ac] governor asked them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?” And they said, “Barabbas!” 22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Christ?”[ad] They all said, “Crucify him!”[ae] 23 He asked, “Why? What wrong has he done?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!”

Jesus is Condemned and Mocked

24 When[af] Pilate saw that he could do nothing, but that instead a riot was starting, he took some water, washed his hands before the crowd and said, “I am innocent of this man’s blood. You take care of it yourselves!”[ag] 25 In[ah] reply all the people said, “Let his blood be on us and on our children!” 26 Then he released Barabbas for them. But after he had Jesus flogged,[ai] he handed him over[aj] to be crucified.[ak]


  1. Matthew 27:1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  2. Matthew 27:2 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  3. Matthew 27:2 tc Most mss (A C W Γ Δ Θ 0250 ƒ1,13 565 579 700 1241 1424 M latt) have Ποντίῳ (Pontiō, “Pontius”) before Πιλάτῳ (Pilatō, “Pilate”), but there seems to be no reason for omitting the tribal name, either intentionally or unintentionally. Adding “Pontius,” however, is a natural expansion on the text, and is in keeping with several other NT and patristic references to the Roman governor (cf. Luke 3:1; Acts 4:27; 1 Tim 6:13; Ign. Magn. 11.1; Ign. Trall. 9.1; Ign. Smyrn. 1.2; Justin Martyr, passim). See TCGNT 52-53. The shorter reading, supported by א B L 0281 33 co, is thus strongly preferred.
  4. Matthew 27:2 sn The Jews most assuredly wanted to put Jesus to death, but they lacked the authority to do so. For this reason they handed him over to Pilate in hopes of securing a death sentence. The Romans kept close control of the death penalty in conquered territories to prevent it from being used to execute Roman sympathizers.
  5. Matthew 27:3 tn Grk “Then when.” Here τότε (tote) has been translated as “now” to indicate a somewhat parenthetical interlude in the sequence of events.
  6. Matthew 27:3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  7. Matthew 27:5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the leaders’ response to Judas.
  8. Matthew 27:6 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  9. Matthew 27:7 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  10. Matthew 27:9 tc The problematic citing of Jeremiah for a text which appears to come from Zechariah has prompted certain scribes to alter it. Codex 22 has Ζαχαρίου (Zachariou, “Zechariah”) while Φ 33 and several versional witnesses omit the prophet’s name altogether. And codex 21 and the Latin ms l change the prophet’s name to “Isaiah,” in accordance with natural scribal proclivities to alter the text toward the most prominent OT prophet. But unquestionably the name Jeremiah is the wording of the original here, because it is supported by virtually all witnesses and because it is the harder reading. See D. A. Carson, “Matthew,” EBC 8:562-63, for a discussion of the textual and especially hermeneutical problem.
  11. Matthew 27:9 tn Grk “the sons of Israel,” an idiom referring to the people of Israel as an ethnic entity (L&N 11.58).
  12. Matthew 27:10 sn The source of this citation is debated (see the tc note on Jeremiah in v. 9 above for a related discussion). The quotation is most closely related to Zech 11:12-13, but the reference to Jeremiah in v. 9 as the source leads one to look there as well. There is no exact match for this text in Jeremiah, but there are some conceptual parallels: In Jer 18:2-6 the prophet visits a potter, and in Jer 32:6-15 he buys a field. D. A. Carson argues that Jer 19:1-13 is the source of the quotation augmented with various phrases drawn from Zech 11:12-13 (“Matthew,” EBC 8:563). W. D. Davies and D. C. Allison argue that the reference to Jeremiah is not meant to refer to one specific text from that prophet, but instead to signal that his writings as a whole are a source from which the quotation is drawn (Matthew [ICC], 3:568-69). Although the exact source of the citation is uncertain, it is reasonable to see texts from the books of Jeremiah and Zechariah both coming into play here.
  13. Matthew 27:11 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  14. Matthew 27:11 tn Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  15. Matthew 27:11 snAre you the king of the Jews?” Pilate was interested in this charge because of its political implications of sedition against Rome.
  16. Matthew 27:11 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  17. Matthew 27:11 sn The reply “You say so” is somewhat enigmatic, like Jesus’ earlier reply to the Jewish leadership in 26:64.
  18. Matthew 27:15 sn The custom of Pilate to release one prisoner is unknown outside the gospels in Jewish writings, but it was a Roman custom at the time and thus probably used in Palestine as well (cf. Matt 27:15; John 18:39).
  19. Matthew 27:16 tc Although the external evidence for the inclusion of “Jesus” before “Barabbas” (in vv. 16 and 17) is rather sparse, being restricted virtually to mss of what was formally labeled the “Caesarean” text (Θ ƒ1 700* sys arm geo2; Ormss), the omission of the Lord’s name in apposition to “Barabbas” is such a strongly motivated reading that it can hardly be original. There is no good explanation for a scribe unintentionally adding ᾿Ιησοῦν (Iēsoun) before Βαραββᾶν (Barabban), especially since Barabbas is mentioned first in each verse (thus dittography is ruled out). Further, the addition of τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν (ton legomenon Christon, “who is called Christ”) to ᾿Ιησοῦν in v. 17 makes better sense if Barabbas is also called “Jesus” (otherwise, a mere “Jesus” would have been a sufficient appellation to distinguish the two). Metzger notes that codex S, a tenth-century majuscule, along with a score of minuscules, have a marginal comment on this verse as follows: “In many ancient copies which I have met with I found Barabbas himself likewise called ‘Jesus.’” The attribution of this scholium is variously given as Anastasius, Chrysostom, or even Origen (TCGNT 56).
  20. Matthew 27:17 tc Again, as in v. 16, the name “Jesus” is supplied before “Barabbas” in Θ ƒ1 700* sys Ormss (Θ 700* lack the article τόν [ton] before Βαραββᾶν [Barabban]). The same argument for accepting the inclusion of “Jesus” as the earlier reading in the previous verse applies here as well.
  21. Matthew 27:17 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  22. Matthew 27:18 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  23. Matthew 27:19 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  24. Matthew 27:19 tn Or “the judge’s seat.”sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bēma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and usually furnished with a seat. It was used by officials in addressing an assembly or making official pronouncements, often of a judicial nature.
  25. Matthew 27:19 tn The word “message” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  26. Matthew 27:19 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  27. Matthew 27:19 tn The Greek particle γάρ (gar, “for”) has not been translated here.
  28. Matthew 27:19 tn Or “suffered greatly in a dream.” See the discussion on the construction κατ᾿ ὄναρ (katonar) in BDAG 710 s.v. ὄναρ.
  29. Matthew 27:21 tn Grk “answering, the governor said to them.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  30. Matthew 27:22 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  31. Matthew 27:22 tn Grk “Him—be crucified!” The third person imperative is difficult to translate because English has no corresponding third person form for the imperative. The traditional translation “Let him be crucified” sounds as if the crowd is giving consent or permission. “He must be crucified” is closer, but it is more natural in English to convert the passive to active and simply say “Crucify him.”sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
  32. Matthew 27:24 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  33. Matthew 27:24 sn You take care of it yourselves! Compare the response of the chief priests and elders to Judas in 27:4. The expression is identical except that in 27:4 it is singular and here it is plural.
  34. Matthew 27:25 tn Grk “answering, all the people said.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
  35. Matthew 27:26 tn The Greek term φραγελλόω (phragelloō) refers to flogging. BDAG 1064 s.v. states, “flog, scourge, a punishment inflicted on slaves and provincials after a sentence of death had been pronounced on them. So in the case of Jesus before the crucifixion…Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15.”sn A Roman flogging (traditionally, “scourging”) was an excruciating punishment. The victim was stripped of his clothes and bound to a post with his hands fastened above him (or sometimes he was thrown to the ground). Guards standing on either side of the victim would incessantly beat him with a whip (flagellum) made out of leather with pieces of lead and bone inserted into its ends. While the Jews only allowed 39 lashes, the Romans had no such limit; many people who received such a beating died as a result. See C. Schneider, TDNT, 4:515-19.
  36. Matthew 27:26 tn Or “delivered him up.”
  37. Matthew 27:26 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
New English Translation (NET)

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