Zech 11:1–3

11:1–3 Scholars debate whether this small poetic section belongs with what precedes (chs. 9–10, God’s judgment against the nations) or with what follows (11:4–17, God’s judgment against Israel for their rejection of the Shepherd). The metaphors of large oaks, dense forests, and ravaging lions are drawn from the plants and animals of the Jordan Valley. The language is consistent with a number of judgments in Israel’s history, but the preeminent judgment comes to those nations and individuals who reject the Good Shepherd, Jesus Christ (Acts 4:24–28).