1:3 the Lord of hosts. A divine title used extensively by the postexilic prophets Zechariah, Haggai, and Malachi. It has military connotations (God as leader of Israel’s armies, 1 Sam. 17:45), but it also highlights God’s sovereign kingship over all creation.
Return to me . . . I will return. Repentance involves a total turning away from sin and a turning to God. God’s return would then bless His people with His presence (1:16; 2:11).