Titus 3:5

3:5 he saved us. See 2 Tim. 1:9.

not because of works . . . but according to his own mercy. Salvation is by grace, not works (v. 6; Eph. 2:8, 9; 2 Tim. 1:9).

washing. Spiritual cleansing, of which baptism is the sign and seal (1 Cor. 6:11; Eph. 5:26).

of regeneration and renewal. Both words characterize the “washing.” “Regeneration” is the new life that begins when a person comes to faith in Christ (John 3:3, 5; 1 Pet. 1:3, 23). Renewal is closely related to rebirth; it signifies the complete transformation of a person’s life that begins when one is regenerated (Rom. 12:2; 2 Cor. 5:17). See “Regeneration: The New Birth.” at John 3:3.

of the Holy Spirit. The Spirit applies to individuals the grace of God that is extended in Christ (John 3:5, 6). Note the trinitarianism of vv. 4–6.