9:13 Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. This distinguishing purpose of God in election (v. 11) is further confirmed by the words of Mal. 1:2, 3, which explain God’s love to Israel as rooted in His free choice of Jacob rather than Esau. “Hated” here cannot be reduced to “loved less,” as the context of Mal. 1:3, 4 makes clear. It must carry the sense of rejection and antipathy.