11:26 all Israel. A critical expression at this point in Paul’s argument, and one whose meaning is much debated. It could mean “all (spiritual) Israel,” that is, all elect persons both Jew and Gentile. Alternately, it may mean “all” Israel in the sense of “all Jews destined to be saved throughout history.” Or, as suggested above, it may point to a time of mass conversion among Jewish people. See 11:25–32 note, points (a), (b), and (c). The exegesis of “all Israel” will depend on the interpretation and weighing of other factors in the passage.