11:8 the great city. This verse suggests to many that ancient Jerusalem is in view throughout this chapter (11:1, 2 note). But the symbolism has many potential applications. The city is the worldly city, representing humanity and human civilization in its rebellion against God. Babel, Sodom, Egypt, Jerusalem, ancient Rome, modern cities, and a final apostasy before the Second Coming are all examples. See Introduction: Interpretive Difficulties and note on 17:1–19:10.