Rev 1:4

1:4 to the seven churches. See v. 11; 2:1–3:22. Revelation is organized in sevens, the biblical number symbolic of completeness (Gen. 2:2, 3). The choice of seven churches expresses this theme and hints at the wider relevance of the message to all churches (vv. 1, 3; 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22; 22:7, 11–14, 16, 18–21).

Asia. The Roman province of Asia lies in what is now western Turkey.

him who is and who was and who is to come. Similar to the divine name in Ex. 3:14, 15. See note on v. 8.

seven spirits. The Holy Spirit is described in sevenfold fullness (4:5; Zech. 4:2, 6). Note the origin of grace and peace from the Trinity: God the Father (“him who is”), the Son (1:5), and the Spirit (cf. 2 Cor. 13:14; 1 Pet. 1:1, 2).