1:12 seven golden lampstands. The lampstands symbolize the churches in their light-bearing or witness-bearing function (1:20; Matt. 5:14–16). Christ walks among the churches as Lord and Shepherd (v. 13), just as God’s cloud of glory descended to dwell in the tabernacle and the temple, which had their lampstands (Ex. 25:31–40; 1 Kin. 7:49). God’s character as light (1 John 1:5) is supremely manifested in Christ (John 1:4, 5; 8:12; 9:5; Acts 26:13), but is also reflected in various ways in His creation: in fiery angels (10:1; Ezek. 1:13), in natural light (21:23; Gen. 1:3), in the temple lampstands, in the churches, and in each individual person (Matt. 5:14–16).