4:1 stand firm. Paul may be anticipating the exhortations that follow, especially the difficult ones of vv. 2 and 3. This helps to explain the presence of so many terms of affection in v. 1. The challenge to “stand firm” harks back to 1:27 (where the same command occurs), and rests immediately upon the declaration of hope in 3:20, 21. Paul is thinking of Christ’s return when he calls his readers a “joy” and “crown” (1 Thess. 2:19, 20).