6:6, 7 Through the rhetorical escalation of sacrifices (“calves . . . thousands of rams . . . rivers of oil . . . my firstborn”) Micah displays the absurdity of Israel’s dependence on empty ritual and sacrifice to earn divine favor. Such reliance showed a profound misunderstanding of God’s grace, for Israel’s salvation was free and not earned (vv. 4, 5). Moreover, Israel’s covenant obligations entailed social justice and mercy, not mere liturgy (v. 8). See also Amos 5:21–24.