1:13 steeds . . . chariots . . . Lachish. A major fortress town of Judah located southwest of Jerusalem, Lachish would have housed a contingent of chariots. Here the reference to “steeds” (the Hebrew term resembles “Lachish”) perhaps implies that the chariots were to be used for flight rather than for fighting.
the beginning of sin. The precise nature of this sin is not explained. Many suggest that it involved the import of Egyptian horses for use in war (5:10; Deut. 17:16; 1 Kin. 10:28, 29), inducing Israel to rely on her military strength rather than on the Lord.
daughter of Zion. A personification of Jerusalem.