3:9 Abraham as our father. Although being Jewish includes outward covenant privileges (Rom. 9:4, 5), the true children of God are so only by virtue of God’s act. Only God can apply the water that changes hearts of stone (Ezek. 36:25, 26). Neither a Jew by birth nor a Christian by birth can expect to be spared judgment apart from the fruit that gives evidence of repentance and faith.