3:11 with the Holy Spirit and with fire. Cleansing with fire describes God’s supernatural baptism, contrasted with the symbol of cleansing with water. The fire of the Spirit renews the people of God and consumes the wicked as chaff (Is. 4:4; Zech. 13:9; Mal. 3:2, 3; 4:1). John’s witness to Jesus as the Lord who has come (v. 3) is extended. As Lord, Jesus baptizes with the Spirit and executes the Last Judgment. See “Baptism” at Rom. 6:3.