15:13 Crucify. Of Persian origin and adopted by the Romans, this cruel and shameful form of capital punishment was used mainly against rebellious slaves and insurrectionists. Metal spikes were driven through the wrists or hands (John 20:25) and heels of the victim who suffered terrible pain. Death usually resulted over the course of days from the effects of the injuries, hunger, dehydration, and exposure. Breaking the condemned’s legs (John 19:33) caused rapid death by asphyxiation, since the legs could no longer lift the body to help the person breathe. As Paul notes, the crucifixion of Jesus brought Him publicly under the curse of God (Gal. 3:13; cf. Deut. 21:23).