1:3 hated. Although there is a usage of the verb “hate” which means “to love less” (Gen. 29:31; Luke 14:26), the context immediately following suggests that here “hate” means active rejection, displeasure, and disfavor manifested in retributive justice. It is not merely that Esau (Edom) suffers the absence or lessening of blessing, but that he receives judgment. For this usage of “hate,” see Ps. 5:5; Is. 61:8; Hos. 9:15; Amos 5:21; Mal. 2:16. See “Election and Reprobation” at Rom. 9:18.
laid waste. The reference is most likely to the occupation of Edom by the Nabatean Arabs. In Amos 9:12 Edom is representative of all the nations who come under the saving influence of God’s promise.