9:1, 2 These verses form the background to chs. 9–12. The fear of the Israelites that immobilized the Canaanites in 5:1 here unites them against Joshua and Israel. There is an anticipation of Ps. 2:1–3, the opposition to God and His rule that culminated in the crucifixion of Jesus (Acts 4:25–27). The impotence of the rulers in Ps. 2 is amply illustrated by the list of defeated kings in Josh. 12.
Hittites . . . Jebusites. See note 3:10.