23:1–16 Joshua in his old age addresses all Israel, probably at Shiloh (18:1; 19:51; 21:2). Chs. 23 and 24 take up the exhortations of ch. 1 and apply them to Israel following the substantial fulfillment of God’s promises. The beginning and end of the book (chs. 1 and 23–24) convey the purpose of the whole, namely, an exhortation to faithful obedience based on the complete faithfulness of God to His promises. Joshua’s speech in ch. 23 expresses this three times over (vv. 3–8, 9–13, 14–16), with variations in emphasis.