Isa 13:4

13:4 sound. The great noise indicates the exercise of God’s power (30:30, 31; 33:3; Ps. 29:5–9).

kingdoms, of nations. The Lord is the commander of human kingdoms. Babylon thought of herself as “the glory of kingdoms” (13:19) or the “mistress of kingdoms” (47:5) and ruled over others with great force (14:16).