Isa 1:2

1:2 heavens . . . earth. The whole of creation will bear witness against Israel that the Lord had warned them they would be judged if they broke their covenant with Him (Deut. 30:19; 32:1).

Lord. This name signifies the personal revelation of God to Israel and His solemn promise to be their God (Ex. 3:15).

Children. They were children by creation, by election, and by covenant (45:11; 49:7; 64:8; Deut. 32:6, 18; Mal. 2:10).

rebelled. Rebellion is willful transgression against the Lord’s sovereign and gracious rule (1:28; 43:27; 48:8; 59:13).