you know no God but me. This stands in contrast with the idolatry of v. 2. The statement, reminding Israel that the covenant relationship is exclusive, is cast in the language of the first commandment (Ex. 20:2, 3; Deut. 5:6, 7), but with the added idea of “knowing” God. Other so-called gods were worshiped, but only the one true God could be ‘‘known.” See Introduction: Characteristics and Themes. Further linkage to the covenant requirements of the Decalogue is evident in the description of Israel’s idolatry (vv. 1, 2), a clear violation of the second commandment (Ex. 20:4–6; Deut. 5:8–10).