12:11 Gilead. This region east of the Jordan, bordered by Moab on the south and Bashan on the north, was a place of illegal sacrifices, bloodshed, and idolatry. It was conquered by Assyria in 734–732 b.c. (2 Kin. 15:29; Hos. 6:8).
Gilgal. See note 4:15.
heaps on the furrows. Large stones struck by the farmer’s plow were piled in heaps.