Hos 12:1

12:1 feeds on. See Prov. 15:14; Is. 44:20.

wind . . . east wind. These images of futility (Job 15:2; Eccl. 1:14) and destruction (13:15; Jer. 18:17) are applied to Israel’s alliances with Assyria (5:13; 7:11; 8:9; 14:3; 2 Kin. 17:3) and Egypt (7:16 note; 2 Kin. 17:4). Such alliances were not merely poor foreign policy, but expressions of faithlessness against the Lord.

falsehood. Examples of deception included Israel’s vacillation between Assyria and Egypt (7:11), and playing off the latter against the former (2 Kin. 17:3, 4).

oil. Gifts were often given when making covenants.