10:14 Shalman destroyed Beth-arbel. Hosea’s audience must have remembered this now unknown event as particularly brutal. Shalman has been identified variously as Shalmaneser III of Assyria (859–824 b.c.), Shalmaneser V (727–722 b.c.), and Salamanu, a contemporary Moabite king. Beth-arbel is usually identified with the site of Irbid in Gilead.